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Along with this shift in the orientation and target of the raptorial strike, smashers dramatically increased in speeds and accelerations Table 1 Cox et al. Thus, the evolutionary shift to smashing encapsulates the major axes of drag: shape, speed and size. View large Download slide Comparative advantage video appendages vary in ccomparative, size and strike kinematics, depending on their predatory strategies.
A Lysiosquillina maculata ambushes evasive prey using spines on the dactyl and propodus. B In spearers, the dactyl and propodus form a rotating unit comparative advantage video a strike, most often with the dactyl open and extended toward the prey.
These physical models, scaled up to match the Reynolds number of an actual strike, were positioned in the flume with the dactyl either closed against the propodus left or opened away from the propodus right. C Gonodactylus smithii smashes hard-shelled prey using a bulbous hammer at the base of the dactyl.
D Hammering occurs with the dactyl folded against the propodus leftbut these animals can stab with the dactyl in the open position right. The physical models B,D were placed in the dactyl-open and dactyl-closed orientations for the flume tests. Scale bars are 10 mm.
Drawings in A and C are adapted from deVries et al. Table 1. View Large The goal of the present study was to analyze the hydrodynamic consequences of kinematic and morphological variation in the fast rotational motion of the mantis shrimp raptorial appendage. We evaluated the methods of drag measurement, blade-element modeling and CFD to quantify drag on this rapidly rotating structure. In addition, we performed comparative advantage video new kinematic analysis of a spearing mantis shrimp, Coronis scolopendra, and conducted phylogenetic comparative analyses of the relationships among drag-related advanage across mantis shrimp.
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These approaches allowed us to address three guiding questions: 1 how does the balance of evolutionary variation in kinematics, shape and size influence variation in drag across stomatopods; 2 given the wide range the of sadhu high Reynolds numbers Re for this system Table 1can we make simplifying assumptions about drag calculations, in the context of the added complexities of rotational, rather than translational, motion; and 3 given the results of the comparative analyses and fluid dynamic methodological comparisons, which aspects of mantis shrimp fluid dynamics are most relevant to evolutionary diversification and should be comparative advantage video primary focus of future fluid dynamic analyses in mantis shrimp? A ruler was placed in the plane of the striking animal to calibrate each series of videos. Five points were tracked manually in each image sequence of a raptorial appendage strike Fig.
Tracking began when the carpus rotation started, and ended when the appendage made contact with the prey or feeding device MATLAB v. The five points included a central point on the merus as well as comparative advantage video on the distal ends of the merus, carpus, propodus and dactyl Fig.
The percent error in each measured displacement averaged 9.]