Modernism is both a philosophical movement and an art movement that arose from broad transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The movement reflected a desire for the creation of new forms of art, philosophy, and social xrchitecture which reflected the newly emerging industrial worldincluding features such as urbanizationnew technologies, and war.
Primary difference between momentum and kinetic energy
Artists attempted to depart from traditional forms of art, which they considered outdated or obsolete. The poet Ezra Pound 's injunction to "Make it New" was the touchstone of the movement's approach. Modernist innovations included abstract artthe stream-of-consciousness novel, montage cinemaatonal and twelve-tone music, and divisionist painting. Modernism explicitly rejected the ideology of realism [a]   and made use of the works of the past by the employment of postkodernincorporationrewriting, recapitulationrevision and parody.
While some scholars see modernism continuing into the 21st century, others see it evolving into late modernism or high modernism. Some commentators define modernism as a mode of thinking—one or more philosophically defined characteristics, like self-consciousness or self-reference, that run across all the novelties in the arts and the disciplines.
Others focus on modernism as an aesthetic introspection. This facilitates consideration of specific reactions to the use of technology in the First World War, and anti-technological and nihilistic aspects of the works of diverse thinkers and artists spanning the period from Friedrich Nietzsche — to Samuel Beckett — According to Roger Griffinmodernism can be defined moedrn a maximalist vision as a broad cultural, social, or political initiative, sustained by the ethos of "the temporality of the new".
นั่นคือบทความ Modern Neoclassical Architecture
According to one critic, modernism developed out of Romanticism 's revolt against the effects of the Industrial Revolution and bourgeois values: "The ground motive of modernism, Graff asserts, was criticism of the nineteenth-century bourgeois social order and its world view [ Postmodern vs modern architecture —one of the greatest landscape painters of the 19th century, was a member of the Romantic movementas "a pioneer in the study of light, colour, and atmosphere", he "anticipated the French Impressionists " and therefore modernism "in breaking down conventional formulas of representation; [though] unlike them, he believed that his works should always express significant historical, mythological, literary, or other narrative themes.
The dominant trends of industrial Victorian England were opposed, from aboutby the English poets postmodern vs modern architecture painters that constituted the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhoodbecause of their "opposition to technical skill without inspiration. The Pre-Raphaelites actually foreshadowed Manet —with whom Modernist painting most definitely begins. They acted on a dissatisfaction with painting as practiced in their time, holding that its realism wasn't truthful enough.
However, the Industrial Revolution continued. Influential innovations included steam-powered industrialization, and especially the development of railways, starting in Britain in the s,  and the subsequent advancements in physics, engineering, and architecture associated with this. A major 19th-century engineering achievement was The Crystal Palacethe huge cast-iron and plate glass exhibition hall built for the Great Exhibition of in London. Glass and iron were used in a similar monumental style in the construction of major railway terminals in Postomdernsuch as Paddington Station postmodern vs modern architecture and King's Cross station ]