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The country has repealed its colonial-era laws that directly discriminated against homosexual and transgender identities and also explicitly interpreted Article 15 of the Constitution to prohibit discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. But many legal protections have not been provided for, including same-sex marriage. Transgender people in India are allowed to change their legal gender post- sex reassignment surgery under legislation passed in , and have a constitutional right to register themselves under a third gender. Additionally, some states protect hijras , a traditional third gender population in South Asia through housing programmes, and offer welfare benefits, pension schemes, free operations in government hospitals as well as other programmes designed to assist them. There are approximately , transgender people in India. In , in the landmark decision of Navtej Singh Johar v. Union of India , the Supreme Court of India decriminalised consensual homosexual intercourse by reading down Section of the Indian Penal Code and excluding consensual homosexual sex between adults from its ambit. Despite recent political movements in favour of LGBT rights, there remains a significant amount of homophobia present among the Indian population, with around half of Indians objecting to same-sex relationships according to a opinion poll. Hinduism acknowledges a third gender , or a hermaphrodite ; there are certain characters in the Mahabharata who, according to some versions of the epic, change genders, such as Shikhandi , who is sometimes told to be born as a female but identifies as male and eventually marries a woman. Bahuchara Mata is the goddess of fertility, worshipped by hijras as their patroness.

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sex vs gender essay

Gender policing is the imposition or enforcement of normative gender expressions on an individual who is perceived as not adequately performingthrough appearance or behavior, the sex that was assigned to them at birth see gender performativity.

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Gender policing serves to devalue or delegitimize expressions that deviate from normative conceptions of gender, thus reinforcing the gender binary. According to Judith Butlerrejection of individuals who are non-normatively gendered is a component of creating one's own gender identity. It is common for normative gender performances of gender to be encouraged and rewarded, while non-normative performances are discouraged through punishment or generally negative reactions. Policing of non-normative performances ranges in intensity from relatively minor discouraging comments to brutal acts of violence.

Tactics of gender policing also vary widely, depending in part on the perceived gender of the individual target. Gender policing aims to keep gender roles rigid and aligned according to the gender binary. The gender binary is the idea that gender exists as the opposition between man and woman. Heteronormativityas an institution, is an extension of this belief that posits that gender and sexuality are expressions of biology. This functionalism of biology asserts that male and female genitalia only serve the purpose of procreation, which creates gender roles that manifest from a perceived innate desire, giving sexuality a specific purpose within society.

Gayle Rubin 's writing in "The Traffic in Women" links the creation of the gender binary to the subordination of women in western society. Rubin found that "woman" was a role created in opposition to "man" and served the purpose of building power, trade relationships, and mutual aid through sex vs gender essay exchange of women by marriage. These Kinship systems necessitated rules, which had to be policed to ensure their continued survival. These rules crystallized into heteronormativity, culturally instilling the rules for accepted sexuality in western sex vs gender essay. The gender binary in western society was formalized from the interpretations of men and women during the hunter-gatherer ages.

Early interpretations of these survival techniques is one of the main reasons for the current idea of the gender binary within western society. In his review of the ethnography of gathering shellfish, Clive Bonsall incorrectly presumed that women and children were primarily gatherers and men were the hunters due to their stronger skill set. These assumptions of past societies shaped the current structure of western society into the beliefs that men are the providers and women are the supporters.

The Importance Of Historical Writing

Additionally in the idea of here marriage as the societal norm came from the analysis of the interactions between different Mesolithic populations. Another mentality that strengthens the idea of binary gender within western society is the warrior-breeder relationship. In sex vs gender essay mentality, masculinity is characterized by the traits of the model warrior: strong and fearless, yet disposable. Meanwhile, femininity and womanhood revolve around reproduction. In this relationship, there are only two types of people; therefore, two genders. This dichotomy is valued sec it keeps society essaay in times of war.

The warriors fight and protect while the breeders replace the fallen warriors. From the works of LGB activism during the late s to s, the queer theory was created along with the influential work of Foucault and Sedgewick. The queer theory creates a space outside the gender binary. This theory deconstructs and discredits the idea sex vs gender essay a gender binary. Disregarding the gender binary caused fears within the western society, ultimately leading to gender policing in order to maintain the idea of binary gender. Man and woman as categories can not exist without the other to source what they are and are not.

Synthesis Of Female Vs Male Stereotypes

The same can be said of heterosexuality and homosexuality. These categories are created vw of their opposition, forming power dynamics. Michel Foucault referred to this creation of identities, through creating discourse surrounding the ideal, as reverse discourse. This antagonistic relationship between identities is the basis for gender policing. Deviation from normative expression, of either gender or sexuality, is often met with varying degrees violence. Patriarchal societies perpetuate masculine dominance in all aspects of life. Patriarchy privileges masculine thought and expression creating a gender hierarchy where women and the feminine are subordinated. The aex of hegemonic masculinity describes a hierarchy even within masculinity itself. Hegemonic masculinity sex vs gender essay for the terms and expression of masculinity to be renegotiated according to time, culture, and class status, allowing for the rationalization of its continued dominance.

Sociologist, Raewyn Connell sex vs gender essay the theory of hegemonic masculinity in order to explain the relationships between men and women and between the class of men within a patriarchal system.]

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