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Foucault's theories primarily address the relationship between power and knowledgeand how they are used as a form of social control through societal institutions. Though often cited as a structuralist and postmodernistFoucault rejected these labels.
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After several years as a cultural diplomat abroad, he returned to France and published his first major book, The History of Madness After obtaining work between and at the University of Clermont-Ferrandhe produced The Birth of the Clinic and The Order of Thingspublications which displayed his increasing involvement with structuralismfrom which he later distanced himself. These first three histories exemplified a historiographical technique Foucault was developing summarry "archaeology. From toFoucault lectured at the University of Tunis before returning to France, where he became head of the philosophy pujishment at the new experimental university discipline and punishment summary Paris VIII.
Foucault subsequently link The Archaeology of Knowledge He also became active in several left-wing groups involved in campaigns against racism and human rights abuses and for penal reform. Foucault later published Discipline and Punish and The History of Sexualityin which he developed archaeological and genealogical methods which emphasized the role that power plays in society. Paul-Michel Foucault was born on 15 October in the city of Poitierswest-central France, as the second of three children in discipline and punishment summary prosperous, socially-conservativeupper-middle-class family.
His father, sumamry successful local surgeon born source Fontainebleaumoved to Poitierswhere he set up his own practice. Prosper Malapert, who owned a private practice and taught anatomy at the University of Poitiers' School of Medicine. In later life, Foucault revealed very little about his childhood.
Afterwards, he took his first four years of secondary education at the same establishment, excelling in French, Greek, Latin, and history, though doing poorly at mathematics, including arithmetic. Foucault's parents opposed the occupation and the Vichy regimebut did not join the Resistance. Although he later described his years there as an "ordeal," Foucault excelled academically, particularly in philosophy, history, and literature.
Here he studied under the philosopher Jean Hyppolitean existentialist discipline and punishment summary expert on the work of 19th-century German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.
discipline and punishment summary Hyppolite had devoted himself to uniting existentialist theories with the dialectical theories of Hegel and Karl Marx. These ideas influenced Foucault, who adopted Hyppolite's conviction that philosophy must develop through a study of history. I wasn't always smart, I was actually very stupid in school And to ingratiate myself with this boy who was very beautiful, I began to do his homework for him—and that's how I became discipline and punishment summary, I had to do all source work to just keep ahead of him a little bit, to help him. In a sense, all the rest of my life I've been trying to do intellectual things that would attract beautiful boys.
Of the hundred students entering the ENS, Foucault ranked fourth based on his entry results, and encountered the highly competitive nature of the institution.
Like most of his classmates, he lived in the school's communal dormitories on the Parisian Rue d'Ulm. He remained largely unpopular, spending much time alone, reading voraciously.
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His fellow students noted discipline and punishment summary love of violence and the macabre; he decorated his bedroom with images of torture and war drawn during the Napoleonic Wars by Spanish artist Francisco Goyaand on one occasion chased a classmate with a dagger. Obsessed with the idea of self-mutilation and suicide, Foucault attempted the latter several times in ensuing years, praising suicide in later writings.
Although studying various subjects, Foucault soon gravitated towards philosophy, reading not only Go here and Marx but also Immanuel KantEdmund Husserl and most significantly, Martin Heidegger. Foucault did so inbut never became particularly active in its activities, and never adopted an orthodox Marxist viewpoint, rejecting core Marxist tenets such as class struggle.]