A totalitarian government is characterized by: - rectoria.unal.edu.co

A totalitarian government is characterized by: - thought

International law operates in terms of reciprocal agreements and treaties between sovereign states. If a sovereign state agrees to be part of some international tribunal or treaty, it reserves the right to leave or to selectively comply. This is exactly what we see in practice. We do not consider this to be a crime because a state has the right to withdraw from a treaty. Compare this to the government of a state, which does not have the right to violate its own law. a totalitarian government is characterized by: A totalitarian government is characterized by:

A totalitarian government is characterized by: - agree, very

This essay aims to highlight that the low generalized application of positive legal norms in any legal system, by allowing greater discretion on the part of the public powers, leads to a gradual increase in the levels of authoritarianism, both on the part of governments and of society itself. The latter consist of factual rules, not enunciated by any specific authority, which are of common and spontaneous observance by the members of a given society and which have extremely diffuse enforcement bodies. A positive legal norm, on the other hand, is sanctioned and promulgated by the public powers and has bodies for the application of its consequences before the verification of certain antecedents, which may consist of repressive sanctions or the establishment of certain creditor relations between individuals. The said consequences will be supported by the application also of the public powers or, expressed in other terms, the officials who exercise the public powers will not incur in any crime or contravention if they execute the dictation of a given sentence. Furthermore, they risk receiving a legal sanction if they abstain from enforcing the law without just cause of its own accord. To illustrate what has just been expressed with some exemplary cases: If a private individual claims a certain sum of money from another — such as compensation for a breach of contract, or for damage caused to his property- he goes to court, the evidence is debated and the titles of the claim are examined and the court sentences condemning the defendant to a certain sum of money, if he does not pay it within the term stipulated in the sentence, then the claimant would be authorized to initiate the enforcement proceedings. Furthermore, the creditor has the power to order the official to activate the enforcement procedures, under the threat of incurring, likewise, legal consequences for the official himself in the event of a possible omissionate conduct. Or perhaps yes, if the offender is offended by the interpretation given to his actions or considers the retaliation disproportionate or illegitimate. Logically, this can lead to an escalation of sanctions, but since this does not involve relevant interests for society nor does it generally lead to events of physical violence, everything remains at the level of the empirical social norms system.

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Ideology is a very crucial aspect of politics. It is a gateway to the understanding of political action and indeed, interpenetration of politics. In this respect, it guides, supports, restrains and rationalizes political action. According to Okwudiba Nnoli, it can act as a great mobilizing energy to galvanize mass political action.

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Ideology is a very pervasive aspect of politics: it antedated it, is enmeshed in it, envelops it and conditions it. The ideology at a time was used to designate the study of ideas towards the end of charaterized eighteenth century in France. In the mid nineteenth century, Marx and Engels in their work The German Ideology, described the young Hegelians as ideologists of the bourgeois system for holding tenaciously to Hegelian philosophy. This unit will explore the various ideologies, examining their basic principles and characteristics. The major ideologies and movements known in political history are examined in different section. At the end of the units, self-assessment questions are provided to test you preparedness and understanding of the topics taught.

a totalitarian government is characterized by:

Each ideological system is usually characterized by a claim of exclusive relevance to the problems of a given age and time. All ideologies also share the main feature they claim universality for the aims and objectives which they seek to attain. For example, the capitalists believe that it is a universal system, and the socialists attempt also to universalize the system. That is, it can be turned into religious beliefs.

a totalitarian government is characterized by:

In view of the nature and importance of ideology for society generally, it follows that ideology performs very useful functions in the organization of modern society. These functions include:. The development of capitalism and Western democracy arises from the doctrine of liberalism. Liberalism was an ideology or doctrine which became pervasive among the European potentates or bourgeoisie the middle class businessman, intellectual professionals, etc. The ideology arose as a movement against monarchical absolutism and the church in Europe during the late eighteenth century. The underlying principles of classical liberalism include:. Classical liberalism was an ideology that tends to justify the total control of society by the middle class.

Although, it still extols individuals liberty and insists that it be the individual rather than the State or any collectivity that is of primary importance. Different scholars attempted to give their own interpretation. This explains why modern democracy is a representative a totalitarian government is characterized by:, which marked significantly from the classical democracy of Athenian type.

Spontaneous thoughts on a humble creed

In an attempt to describe democracy, five basic elements are discernible: These are equality, sovereignty of the people, respect for human life, the individual. It is simply equal right and opportunity of all citizens to hold political office. Democracy has certain principles which have universal application. First, the principle popular consultation, that in a democracy decisions are taken after the citizens have been widely consulted.

Second, political sovereignty, this implies that in a democracy power tootalitarian to the people electorate. Third, political equality. Democratic equality as one of the basic tenets implies one man one vote, irrespective of social status, wealth, religion, etc. Fourth, majority rule and minority rights this implies that, the majority will always have their ways while the minority opinion must be respected. Fifth, fundamental human right which includes the right to life, liberty and property.

A totalitarian government is characterized by:, independent of the judiciary that the judiciary must be independent in order to play its role as an arbiter. Seventh, it opposes arbitrary rule by the leaders Eight, the obedience of the rule of law. There are contending views characerized democracy among scholars. According to Held, this disagreement has given rise to three basic variants or models of democracy.]

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