Trust vs. Mistrust Is the world a safe place or is it full of unpredictable events and accidents waiting to happen? The crisis is one of trust vs. Eeik this stage the infant is uncertain about the world in according to erik erikson personality develops they live. To resolve these feelings of uncertainty the infant looks towards their primary caregiver for stability and consistency of care.
If the care the infant receives is consistent, predictable and reliable, they will develop a sense of trust which will carry with them to other relationships, and they will be able to feel secure even when threatened. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of hope. By developing a sense of trust, the infant can have hope that as new crises arise, there is a real possibility that other people will be there are a source of support.
Failing to acquire the virtue of hope will lead to the development of fear. For example, if the care peesonality been harsh or inconsistent, unpredictable and unreliable, then the infant will develop a sense of mistrust and will not have confidence in the world around them or in their abilities to influence events.
This infant will carry the basic sense of mistrust with them to other relationships. It may result in anxiety, heightened insecurities, and an over feeling of mistrust in the world around them. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt The child is developing physically and becoming personapity mobile. Between the ages of 18 months and three, children begin to assert their independence, by walking away from their mother, picking which toy to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to eat, etc. The child is discovering that he or she has many skills and abilities, such as putting on clothes and soylent scoop, playing with toys, etc.
Erikson states it is critical that parents allow their children to explore the limits of their abilities within an encouraging environment which is tolerant of failure. So, the parents need to encourage the child to becoming more independent whilst at the same time http://rectoria.unal.edu.co/uploads/tx_felogin/i-want-to-cushion-the-shock-of/siddhartha-buddhism.php according to erik erikson personality develops child so that constant failure is avoided.
Table 3.2 Some Common Infant Reflexes
A delicate balance is required from the parent. They must try not to do everything for the child but if the child fails at a particular task they must not criticize the child for failures and accidents particularly when toilet continue reading. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of will. If children in this stage are encouraged and supported in their increased independence, they become more confident and secure in their own ability to survive in the world. If children are criticized, overly controlled, or not given the opportunity to according to erik erikson personality develops themselves, they begin to feel inadequate in their ability to survive, and may then become overly dependent upon others, lack self-esteemand feel a sense of shame or doubt in their own abilities.
Guilt Around age three and continuing to age five, children assert themselves more frequently. During this period the primary feature involves the child regularly interacting with other children at school.
Central to this stage is play, as it provides children with the opportunity to explore their interpersonal skills peronality initiating activities. Children begin to plan activities, make up games, and initiate activities with others. If given this opportunity, children develop a sense of initiative, and feel secure in their ability to lead others and make decisions. Conversely, if according to erik erikson personality develops tendency is squelched, either through criticism or control, children develop a sense of guilt. They may feel like a nuisance to others and will therefore remain followers, lacking in self-initiative. The child takes initiatives which the parents will often try to stop in order to protect the child. The child will often overstep the mark in his forcefulness and the danger is that the parents will tend to punish the child and restrict his initiatives too much.
It is at this stage that the child will begin to ask many questions as his thirst for knowledge yo.
Too much guilt can make the child slow to interact with others and may inhibit their creativity. Some guilt is, of course, necessary, otherwise the child would not know how to exercise self control or have a conscience.
A healthy balance between initiative and guilt is important. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of purpose. Industry competence vs.]