Antibiotics are a complex group of organic chemicals produced by microorganisms that have a detrimental effect on other organisms.
All antibiotics are bacteriostatic, which means that at suitable concentrations they inhibit bacterial growth, and some antibiotics are bactericidal, which means that positivr are able to destroy bacteria when conditions are suitable. In this presentation the groups of antibiotics will be discussed and their rational use will be addressed.
They may also be classified as bactericidal or bacteriostatic drugs. Antibiotics act against bacteria by interfering with either cell wall synthesis, nucleic acid synthesis, or protein synthesis. Interferes with cell wall synthesis. Good gram-positive activity with some gram-negative activity of the aminopenicillins.
Combined with clavulanic acid to inhibit beta-lactamase. Good gram-positive activity with increasing gram-negative activity with second- and third-generation cephalosporins. Inhibit DNA gyrase.
Dose-dependent bactericidal activity. Broad spectrum. Inhibits protein synthesis. Gram-negative activity.
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Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Inhibit bacterial protein synthesis. Effective against RickettsiaMycoplasma and Chlamydia. Activity against gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Activity against Mycoplasma and Chlamydia. Examples are azithromycin, lincomycin, and clindamycin. Effective against anaerobes. CNS toxicity.
Ideally, before starting antibiotic therapy bacterial culture and sensitivity testing would be required. This is not always practical and often empirical antibiotic therapy is used without prior knowledge of the bacteria or the susceptibility profile.
When selecting an antibiotic, take into account factors such as the site of infection, status of the immune system, concurrent diseases, age of the animal, and physiological status of the patient. Skin infections in dogs and cats are often caused by Staphylococcus intermedius or S.]