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This idealization of the bucolic can only exist when there is an urban elite or privileged class that is separated from the idealized peasantry by education, social position, cas economic resources. Ralph Rinzler The United States experienced two waves of folk-song revival activity a little more than twenty years apart, between the late s and the early s.
Rinzler knew what he was talking about, besides being a folksinger cohesion case broadway cafe answers collector, he organized folk festivals at the Smithsonian Institution starting in the s. In both instances, these revivals involved a form of politicization, forging left-wing political ideologies onto populist roots. The best stuff you can sing about is what you saw and if you look hard enough you can see plenty to sing cafr. Printed in the Netherlands. This is in part so because it is how many of the actors involved understood their own activities.
Woody Guthrie, for example, thought of the very content of folk music, as opposed to the musical form, as inherently political: I think real folk stuff scares most of the cohesion case broadway cafe answers around Washington. While some wanted to preserve the music for its own sake, others held a more instrumental link, arguing that with the right organizational and ideological mediation music could serve the impor- tant political functions of enlightenment or recruitment.
In the s- 40s this type of mediation was provided by the Communist Party CPUSA and its associated cultural groups, and in the s by what came to call itself the New Left.
cohesion case broadway cafe answers However important the fact that many activists themselves understood their actions through the prism of a theory of history however articu- latedthis is only one reason for placing these cultural movements in a context of wider click change. Another is the more general sociologi- cal claim that all actions should be understood in relation to their social context. Within the framework of what is called the cognitive approach to interpreting social change, we argue here for the importance of plac- ing social and cultural movements, like the American folk music re- vival, in their historical contexts in order to understand fully both their emergence and their significance. There is sufficient similarity in the form and content of these revivals that one can properly speak of two waves rather than two separate movements, yet the contexts within which these waves took shape made for significant differences, also in form and content.
In the s American folk music was, in an important sense, invented by an urban intellectual elite of the type mentioned in the epigraph above. This invention was shaped within a context constituted by politi- cohesion case broadway cafe answers and social movements responding to problems of modernization accentuated by the Great Depression. While the types of actors and music provide a degree of continuity, the situation in the s was quite different. The United States was entering what perhaps can now be called the early stages of a post-modern or at least post-industrial period, characterized by economic and political expansion and student and youth movements centered in an expanding middle class.
While the universities and an educated urban elite were important to both waves, the character of higher education upon which this elite rested its legitimacy had changed significantly from the s, and so too the music and its meaning. Illuminating these differences and similarities by placing them within a theoretical framework is our aim in this article. Integrated into an art world or market for symbolic goods, the object a cultural good is explained in relation to a social organization of production, distribution, and recognition.
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Like Bourdieu, DiMaggio argues that processes of classification and meaning cannot be separated from the institutional context of produc- tion. The POC approach deals with the conscious aspects of the production of cultural goods, but also recognizes that the broader arrangements of cultural production — the structure of the academy, an art world or an industry — has an independent effect. In addition to studying the effects of institutional contexts, the POC approach calls attention to the importance of support structures, networks, and gate- keepers in the production of cultural goods. In discussing the two waves of folk revival here, we make use of these concepts in explaining differences in the two periods. Second, the economic, which focuses on the means of producing and distribut- ing cultural products, the structure of the music industry and the com- mercial field as cohesion case broadway cafe answers whole and its effects on the form and content of music.]