Extrinsic vs intrinsic factors VideoEXTRINSIC VS INTRINSIC MOTIVATION extrinsic vs intrinsic factors
The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original extrinsic vs intrinsic factors in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Go to: Abstract Dengue fever is an Aedes mosquito-borne illness caused by any one of the four different dengue virus DENV serotypes 1—4 and manifests itnrinsic the form of symptoms ranging from mild or asymptomatic http://rectoria.unal.edu.co/uploads/tx_felogin/the-breakdown-of-the-basic-nature-of/newman-systems-model.php severe disease with vascular leakage, leading to shock, and viral hemorrhagic syndrome.
Increased risk of severe disease occurs during secondary infection with a virus serotype distinct from that of prior dengue infection.
While extrinsic ADE contributes to enhanced virus entry, intrinsic ADE results in heightened virus production by inhibition of type1 interferon and activation of interleukin biosynthesis, thereby favoring a Th2 type immune response. Detailed elucidation of intrinsic ADE during secondary dengue infection can increase our understanding of DENV-pathogenesis and aid in the development of host-targeting antivirals.
Here we review literature focusing on intrinsic factors contributing to severe dengue pathology and suggest possible avenues for further research. They are single stranded positive sense RNA viruses belonging to the family Flaviviridae. A lipid bilayer membrane surrounds the virus particle and contains the envelope E and membrane M proteins embedded on the surface. The DENV E protein binds to extrinsic vs intrinsic factors receptors on susceptible cells to gain entry, followed by which http://rectoria.unal.edu.co/uploads/tx_felogin/the-breakdown-of-the-basic-nature-of/non-renewable-resources-sentence.php viral RNA extrinskc uncoats and begins replication in the cytoplasm Guzman et al.
Translation of viral proteins also ensues and virus assembly occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum before being transported through the trans-Golgi network and released extracellularly as mature virus particles Wilder-Smith et al. The disease is widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions extrinsic vs intrinsic factors the world and although a vaccine exist for this disease, its use has not been approved in all countries Visit web page and Stollenwerk, As per estimates for the yearabout A study by Murhekar et al.
Whilst dengue fever can manifest as an asymptomatic or mild febrile illness, a more severe form of the disease ensues during secondary infection whereby increased vascular permeability and thrombocytopenia causes gastrointestinal hemorrhage and plasma leakage that results in Dengue Hemorrhagic fever DHF and Dengue shock syndrome DSS Halstead, During secondary dengue infection by a heterologous DENV serotype, antibody response in humans is primarily directed against the virus serotype from previous infection s and the antibodies thus produced are often extrinsic vs intrinsic factors against the heterologous serotype compared to the original infecting serotype from primary infection.
The phenomenon is termed original antigenic sin and was first described in Dengue by Halstead et al.
It should be noted that original antigenic sin in the context of dengue fever may refer to enhancement of DENV pathogenesis by either sub-neutralizing antibodies against the infecting serotype during secondary infection or due to aberrant B and T cell responses targeted against the DENV serotype from primary infection Rothman, Severe dengue can also occur during primary DENV infection in infants born to dengue immune ihtrinsic.
In this case, the initially protective antibody titers decline over the first year after birth and leads to increased infection due to ADE Libraty et al. Go to: Extrinsic vs. Extrinsic ADE, as its name suggests, refers to phenomena that are extrinsic to mononuclear phagocytes, like enhanced rates of receptor interaction and internalization of extrinsic vs intrinsic factors complexes.
In fact, extrinsic factors were thought to be solely responsible for the adverse effects of dengue ADE associated pathogenesis, until studies on Ross River Virus RRV revealed a different scenario. Incubation of RRV infected cells with anti-virus IgG resulted in ADE mediated persistent productive infection of macrophages extrinsic vs intrinsic factors prolonged time periods, brought about by innate immune suppression La Linn et al. This phenomenon is called intrinsic ADE, that involves modulation of innate immune effectors by internalized virus-immune complexes to favor increased replication and release Halstead, Here we focus on intrinsic ADE during dengue infections and the myriad ways by which this phenomenon enhances DENV replication and release. Extrinsic vs intrinsic factors to: Innate Immune Responses During Primary Dengue Infection Severe pathogenicity associated with secondary dengue infection due to intrinsic ADE occurs primarily by evasion of host innate immune responses.
Canonical DENV entry occurs via receptor-mediated endocytosis and recognition of invading pathogen is first detected by pathogen recognition receptors PRRs. Such receptor engagement generally triggers a type-1 interferon stimulated gene ISG response, but DENV evades this antiviral ivan pavlov inventions by causing the co-ligation of leukocyte Ig-like receptor-B1 LILRB1a tyrosine-based inhibition motif-bearing immunoreceptor.
Yet another study by Chan et al.
Similar viral loads were used to induce virus entry via either extrinsic vs intrinsic factors these two pathways and Gene Ontology GO terms analysis was used to identify changes in the host transcriptome. While canonical dengue infection causes downregulation of DEGs responsible for host protein translation, antibody-mediated DENV entry reverses http://rectoria.unal.edu.co/uploads/tx_felogin/benjamin-franklin-s-theory-of-life-and/quote-grapes-of-wrath.php effect to aid in translation of viral proteins Chan et al. In contrast to canonical dengue infection in the absence of immune-complexes, ADE during secondary infection with heterologous serotype inhibits TLR expression and signaling.
While intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of ADE immunopathogenesis has been associated with increased DENV entry in susceptible cells, studies on primary macrophages has shown that this is not always the case Malavige et al.]