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How are the male and female reproductive systems similar Video

Lesson 3: The Role of Hormones in Male and Female Reproductive Systems how are the male and female reproductive systems similar How are the male and female reproductive systems similar

For fully differentiated, long lived cells the maintenance of protein homeostasis proteostasis becomes a crucial determinant of cellular function and viability. Neurons are the most well-known example of this phenomenon where the majority of these cells must survive the entire course of life. However, male and female germ cells are also uniquely dependent on the maintenance of proteostasis to achieve successful fertilization. Oocytes, also long-lived cells, are subjected to prolonged periods of arrest and are largely reliant on the translation of stored mRNAs, accumulated during the growth period, to support meiotic maturation and subsequent embryogenesis. Conversely, sperm cells, while relatively ephemeral, are completely reliant on proteostasis due to the absence shstems both transcription and translation.

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Here, we seek to capture the momentum of this growing field by highlighting nale findings regarding germline proteostasis and how this knowledge can be used to promote reproductive health. In this review we capture proteostasis in the context of both somatic cell and germline aging and discuss the influence of oxidative stress on protein function. In particular, we highlight the contributions of proteostasis changes to oocyte aging and encourage a focus in this area that may complement the extensive analyses of DNA damage and aneuploidy that have long occupied the oocyte aging field.

Moreover, we discuss the influence of common non-enzymatic protein modifications on the stability of proteins in similra male germline, how these changes affect sperm function, and how they may be prevented to preserve fertility. This manuscript will be of interest to those in the fields of proteostasis, aging, male and female gamete reproductive biology, embryogenesis, and life course health.

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A functional proteome is essential for the survival of cells and organisms, resulting in a considerable investment of energy into the maintenance of cellular protein homeostasis proteostasis. For the male and female germline, the regulation of proteostasis can be particularly challenging as the male gamete experiences prolonged periods in the relative absence of transcription and translation while the female gamete is similarly transcriptionally inactive prior to fertilization and embryonic genome activation. Consequently, maintaining a functional proteome becomes heavily reliant upon proteostasis machinery, the how are the male and female reproductive systems similar environment and post-translational protein regulation. Distinctively, in the case of the gametes, the stakes are extremely high as the maintenance of proteostasis throughout the life of germ cells is critical to ensure the fitness of the next generation.

In recent years, a focus on samuel bio the proteomes of germ cells has begun to reveal the importance of proteostasis both to cellular and organismal development, as well as for fertilization.

how are the male and female reproductive systems similar

Herein, we provide an important update on the contribution of proteostasis disruption to male and female infertility and highlight key areas for future research through the specific lenses of reproductive aging and oxidative stress; two of the most click elements that compromise germ cell function and contribute to infertility in humans. Moreover, we draw on relevant discoveries in somatic cells and model organisms to propose a new trajectory for the field of mammalian reproduction that may lead to better regulation of proteostasis and the improvement of male and female reproductive health. Proteostasis describes the homeostatic relationship between protein production, assembly, and degradation.

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Following translation, most nascent polypeptides must correctly fold into their three-dimensional structures prior to fulfilling their functional roles. Disruptions in this how are the male and female reproductive systems similar potentiates protein aggregation, in turn, requiring cells to bales parsons and a consortium of defense mechanisms in order to mitigate the impact of misfolded protein species Dobson, ; Schaur et al.

Different forms of aggregates can arise from the same protein due to exposure to diverse stress conditions. The term aggregate has broad connotations, referring to composites of misfolded proteins that compromise cellular function Hohn et al. Concordantly, protein aggregation, and the accumulation of the toxic protein species as a result of this process, is often indicative of a decline in proteostasis Radwan et al. The unchecked propagation of protein aggregates often accompanies the onset of severe disease states Chiti and Dobson,with notable examples including AD, ALS, type 2 diabetes, and the spongiform encephalopathies e.

Such mechanisms include the synergistic action of the heat shock response HSRunfolded protein response UPR ER and UPR mtubiquitin-proteasome system UPS and autophagic-lysosomal pathways; all of which combine to play crucial roles in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis Figure 1. Whilst each of these mechanisms are undoubtedly important, here we focus only on those elements of the PN summarized in Figure 1 in order to provide context to proteostasis mechanisms as they relate to male and female fertility. For a comprehensive review of all proteostasis elements and mechanisms see Labbadia and Morimoto, and Klaips et al.

Figure 1.

how are the male and female reproductive systems similar

Summary of the cellular proteostasis network. The fate of misfolded proteins arising from oxidative stress ROS -induced cascades varies depending on the nature of ars protein and extent of damage. Among these mechanisms, the sensing of redox state and subsequent induction of heat shock response HSR by sirtuins SIRT leads to the upregulation of heat shock protein Hsp expression.]

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