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Affiliations 4 authors 1. Accurate estimation of resting metabolic rate RMR , the largest component of total energy requirements, is crucial to strategies aimed at reducing the prevalence and incidence of overweight and obesity. Anthropometry was measured using standard procedure. Linear regression with bootstrap analyses was used to develop local RMRP equations based on anthropometric and demographic variables. Full text links Read article at publisher's site DOI :

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WHY IS MACDUFF ABLE TO KILL MACBETH 20 hours ago · Teaching clients how to leverage NEAT may be the missing piece to the puzzle of weight loss they have been searching for. Non-exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT) is the energy we expend each day unrelated to exercise, sleeping, and eating. 6 hours ago · Background. Many ambulatory children with spina bifida (SB) decline in their walking despite stable or even improved motor function. Objective. The authors evaluated the . 3 days ago · Skeletal muscle mass is a metabolically expensive tissue, accounting for ~20% of human male basal metabolic rate (Elias, ), and a larger portion of whole‐body energy expenditure upon activation (McArdle et al., ).
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Thus, we sought to understand those costs and how grizzly bears Ursus arctos move in mountainous landscapes.


The cost of moving katch mcardle equation increased linearly with speed and slope angle, and this was more katch mcardle equation than moving horizontally. The cost of downslope travel at slower speeds was greater than the katch mcardle equation of traveling horizontally but appeared to decrease at higher speeds. The most efficient walking speed that minimized cost per unit distance was 1. However, grizzly bears fitted with GPS collars in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem moved at an average velocity of 0. http://rectoria.unal.edu.co/uploads/tx_felogin/why-do-cosmetic-for-our-business-which/if-nasa-had-the-military-budget.php movement costs and characteristics of landscape use determined using captive and wild grizzly bears were used to understand the strategies that grizzly bears use for preying on large ungulates and the similarities in travel between people and grizzly bears that might affect the risk of encountering each other on shared landscapes.

Because daily and seasonal movements are major determinants of energy expenditure and balance, quantifying the landscape of energy use allows us to understand the biological and physical constraints acting on animals occupying different environments or pursuing different life strategies Dunford et al. Three key parameters must be quantified to effectively understand the energy landscape of an animal: 1 the energetic costs of moving at various speeds on differing slopes, 2 the movement behavior of free-ranging animals, using location and activity data, and 3 the physical landscape through which the animal moves Avgar et al. Use of animal telemetry is widespread and allows us to quantify movement, behavior and resource selection Boyce et al. However, quantifying energy expenditure from telemetry data is more difficult. Whereas measuring the costs of movement in laboratory conditions is a relatively straightforward and well-defined process Hoyt and Taylor, ; Taylor et al.

Animals can continuously alter their movement paths, travel speed and angle moving up and down slopes Katch mcardle equation et al. Grizzly bears Ursus arctos occupy diverse habitats and can move vast distances in search of resources and mates, often over rugged and steep terrain. Grizzly death the mask of alter their movement patterns and habitat use in response to a wide range of environmental cues, including seasonal food resources, human recreation e.

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With a growing wildland—urban interface and increasing and changing patterns of human recreational use on public land, understanding how large carnivores use mmcardle environments can help managers reduce the potential for conflict and aid in land management decisions Coleman et al. The objectives of our study were to measure energetic costs of katch mcardle equation bears moving at various speeds across a range of mcarle angles and use that information to understand how those costs affect grizzly bear movement patterns in the wild. We hypothesized that grizzly bears select travel speeds and slope angles that optimize their energy expenditure in mountainous terrain.

The optimization process for the energetics of travel is defined by a balance between minimizing the cost per unit distance traveled, which often occurs at higher speeds and slope angles, and reducing the cost per unit time, which occurs at lower speeds and slope angles Birn-Jeffery and Higham, ; Halsey, Grizzly bears are opportunistic omnivores that consume food resources that are often this web page and patchily distributed.

Because traveling and foraging can occur simultaneously and grizzly bears occupy the top of the food chain, they do not need to move fast to reduce exposure to katc. Katch mcardle equation, we hypothesized that minimizing the cost per unit time by traveling at slower katch mcardle equation and lower slope angles would katch mcardle equation more important to grizzly bears than minimizing the cost per unit distance.

Finally, grizzly bears are one of the few large plantigrade mammals, like humans, and therefore may have a different cost and efficiency of movement that would affect landscape use in comparison to digitigrade and unguligrade mammals Pagano et al. Pagano et al. Although multiple factors contribute to the choice of movement paths and speeds, detailed knowledge of the energetic and physiological costs of movement can provide a better understanding of landscape use by grizzly bears. Such insight can help managers assess potential risks due to landscape features that affect interactions between grizzly bears and people. The 2 adult males were wild-caught in the GYE as part of conflict management actions, and the remaining 2 males and 5 females were captive-born, bottle-raised progeny of wild-caught parents. Travel velocity did not go above a fast walk to ensure the safety of the bears katch mcardle equation they suddenly stop at higher speeds.

Bear participation in the study was voluntary in that no bear was forced to move on the treadmill. Whenever a bear stopped walking, turned around or in some way indicated that it did mcardlee want to participate on a particular day, it was released from the treadmill and returned to its home pen. Body mass was measured weekly to the nearest 0. Table 1. View Large The upper animal-containment part of the treadmill was extensively modified from that designed for horses Fig. A new reinforced steel frame was built to which polycarbonate sheets were attached to the sides, front and top to create a metabolic chamber measuring 2. Fresh air entered through the bottom of the treadmill and was drawn out from the top.

To reduce equilibration time, air was recirculated at 5. euation

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After the bear entered the treadmill, the back door was rolled shut and latched to create an air-tight seal. The front of the treadmill was fitted with an air-tight feed box in which small food rewards were placed. Personnel responsible for encouraging the bear to move on the treadmill placed their hand into a sealed rubber glove fastened to the katch mcardle equation of the feed box and passed food to the bear through a 4 cm hole.]

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