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Still, Guineans were able to preserve their ethnicity and ancient roots, which are evident in art and music. The earliest reports of European contact in the region were recorded in the midth century. The Portuguese established settlements along the coastal and river areas, and eventually settled the country in the 16th century after establishing permanent trading posts on the shores. The Portuguese colony included the mainland territory of Guinea-Bissau and the islands of Cape Verde. They prevailed over African opposition and became the sole power in the region in mandinka culture

Mandinka culture Video

Manding - Mande Part 1 / Histoire - Histoire - Taariqo (Mandinka Version)

Since modern humans Homo sapiens sapiens evolved in Africa, that ugly and universal human tradition known as war almost certainly has a longer history on that continent than anywhere manddinka in the world. However, compared with the vast libraries of books about European and Asian mandinka culture, relatively little has been written about African military traditions.

mandinka culture

Part of the problem is that, since the majority of pre-colonial African societies had no written language, most Africans did not describe their own militaries in writing the way Europeans and Asians did. However, there were exceptions to the rule of African pre-literacy. Some African cultures, such as those of West Africa and Ethiopia, adopted written scripts from Southwest Asians mandinka culture whom they traded, while others, like the Egyptians mandinak Nubians of the Nile Valley, created their own scripts.

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We therefore have relatively more knowledge mandinma these civilizations' armies. That said, even those Africans who did not have written languages sometimes had their militaries described by European visitors and settlers, so some information exists about them as well. Given Africa's cultural diversity, a complete, detailed survey of every African nation's army would require an encyclopedia series, so for the sake of concision, I will focus only on mandinka culture of the continent's most famous historical cultures: the Egyptians, the Mandinka, and the Zulu. In the mandonka, the ancient Egyptian army was primitive, at least in comparison with the armies of ancient Europe and Asia.

No armor was worn by mandinka culture common soldier, just the linen loincloth that was standard for Egyptian men. Only a cowhide shield protected him. Since early Egyptians had no knowledge of the horse, they also mandinka culture cavalry. Further handicapping the Egyptians was a relative lack of discipline, since their warriors were usually conscripted commoners rather than trained professionals. However, the ancient Egyptians did start out with a broad variety of weapons: spears, axes, daggers, clubs, cudgels, and simple bows.

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Of these, it was the bow that was the Egyptians' favorite weapon the Nubians to the south were also fond of it, as their land was sometimes called "Land of the Bow" mandinka culture, for Egyptians typically mandinka culture their attacks by showering their enemies with arrows. Only after culturw volleys had softened up the enemy would the Egyptian melee infantry charge. The poor equipment and discipline of the nascent Egyptian army was no problem when fighting other Africans, but once confronted by the more technologically advanced armies of Southwest Asia, the Egyptians were symbolic speech definition to upgrade and reform their military. When the Asian Hyksos took control of the Nile Delta after the Middle Kingdom, they introduced a number of new technologies which the Egyptians would take mandjnka of once they drove the Hyksos out and began the New Kingdom.

Perhaps the most significant of these new technologies was the horse-driven chariot.

Armies of Ancient Africa

However, the Egyptians did not simply adopt this new contraption in its initial form, instead modifying its design so that it was smaller and lighter and therefore more suitable to Egyptian terrain. In New Kingdom armies, chariots were culturr manned by two men, an archer of noble origin and a driver. If mandinka culture archer ran out of arrows, he also had spears he could use in close combat.

mandinka culture

Charioteers were better armored than other Egyptian soldiers, wearing mandinka culture scale armor or leather bands across the chest. The New Kingdom also saw a change in military organization. No longer composed of conscripted peasants, the new Egyptian armies were professional in nature.

mandinka culture

Initiated with a haircut and subjected to rigorous training which included wrestling, knife-throwing, and stick-fighting, the new generation of Egyptian warriors experienced severe discipline in the form of thrashing from fellow recruits.]

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