National cranberry cooperative process flow diagram -

National cranberry cooperative process flow diagram Video

Nick Garramone, NCC Case Study national cranberry cooperative process flow diagram

Urban development over the Edwards aquifer in the Austin, Texas, area has caused concerns about the availability and quality of water in the aquifer. The study area, the Edwards aquifer that discharges to Barton Springs, includes parts of Travis and Hays Counties flwo extends from the city of Kyle to the Colorado River.

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A large part of the aquifer lies within the Austin metropolitan area one of the fastest growing areas in the Nation. As ofonly about 30, people used water from the aquifer, however, according to recent official city of Austin population projections, about 86, more people will be living in the study area by the yearmany of whom will depend upon the aquifer for water. Barton Springs, which discharges from the aquifer, serves as a supplemental source of drinking water for Austin and as a national cranberry cooperative process flow diagram recreational attraction. The aquifer is a karst system composed of limestone and dolomite of Cretaceous age. The water occurs in solution channels in the Edwards and Georgetown Limestones.

Yields of adjacent wells often differ by as much as four orders of magnitude. Storage within the aquifer is aboutacre-feet, of which about 31, acre-feet is within the "transient" part of storage the change in volume occurring between high flow and the lowest known flow of Barton Springs.

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The average lrocess yield of the aquifer is 0. Within the study area, the Edwards aquifer covers square national cranberry cooperative process flow diagram, of which about square miles discharge to Barton Springs, and the remaining 4 square miles discharge to Cold and Deep Eddy Springs.

The westernmost 79 percent of the aquifer is under water-table conditions, and the remaining 21 percent is under confined conditions. Three geologic sections are presented in the report, as well as maps showing the altitudes of the base and the top of the Edwards aquifer. Recharge occurs predominantly along faults and fractures crossing six creeks in the recharge area, which covers the westernmost 90 square miles of the aquifer. Leakage probably occurs into the Edwards aquifer from check this out underlying upper Trinity aquifer. A small amount of subsurface recharge also occurs as "bad-water" encroachment during procezs periods. Monthly values for water levels, total surface-water recharge, and total discharge springflow and pumpage for the aquifer are available for 4 years.

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Water-budget analyses show that surface recharge and ground-water discharge springflow and pumpage are reasonably balanced, suggesting that the ground-water system is in dynamic equilibrium. Based on 65 years of measurements, Barton Springs has a long-term mean discharge of 50 cubic feet per second and a minimum and maximum discharge of natinal and cubic feet per second. As ofthe estimated total ground-water pumpage of about 3, acre-feet per year represented just over 10 percent of the average annual discharge of 36, acre-feet to Barton Springs.

national cranberry cooperative process flow diagram

Increased pumpage associated with future ground-water development could national cranberry cooperative process flow diagram the discharge at Barton Springs and reduce ground-water availability. Substantial pumpage increases could cause increased subsurface flow into the aquifer in the form of "bad-water" encroachment, leakage from underlying epicurean ethics, or both. Water-quality data for are available for each creek that recharges the aquifer, from Barton Springs, and for 38 wells. Water quality from Barton Springs and the wells is better than the creeks providing surface recharge, which have fecal-bacteria values as high ascolonies per milliliters. Significant densities of fecal bacteria have been found in water from Barton Springs.

national cranberry cooperative process flow diagram

Significant concentrations of nitrate nitrogen, fecal-group bacteria, and fluoride have been identified in samples from wells. Fluoride originates in the aquifers that underlie the Edwards aquifer. Nitrate nitrogen and fecal-group bacteria originate in residential developments and cattle ranches located in the area.

national cranberry cooperative process flow diagram

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