Reflection physical science -

Reflection physical science - above told

How to Cite this Article Abstract This work aims to derive an expression to describe the reflection coefficient of an escape electron from metal-semiconductor interface of DSSC. The derivation was obtained by analytically solving electron diffusion equation with assumptions of steady state DSSC and negligible current flow at the outer most part of the film. The derived corrected Richardson-Dushman equation including a reflection of electron wave at potential barrier is inserted into current-voltage JV characteristic equation. We showed that voltage loss at various temperature and current densities do not vary with and without reflection coefficient. However, the reflection coefficient is shown to be insignificant to JV characteristics with respect to potential barriers. Our results confirm the effect of potential barrier through which an electron must be accelerated in order to gain sufficient energy necessary for high power conversion efficiency. reflection physical science Reflection physical science

Reflection physical science Video

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Go to: Abstract In this paper, the detection of the lunar surface soil permittivity with megahertz electromagnetic EM waves by spaceborne radar is studied based on the EM scattering theory, the Boltzmann—Shukla equations, and the improved scattering matrix method ISMM. The reflection characteristics of the lunar surface soil reflection physical science to megahertz waves are analyzed through the EM continue reading theory and expressed by the lunar surface soil permittivity.

Then, the lunar ionosphere is assumed to be composed of dusty plasma, and its EM characteristics are described with the Boltzmann—Shukla equations. Finally, the transmission and reflection characteristics of the propagation of EM waves in physial lunar ionosphere are numerically calculated with ISMM. Thus, the complex permittivity of lunar surface soil is obtained. In addition, the effects of detection environment situations, such as the lunar illumination intensity, characteristics of the lunar dust and dust charging process in the lunar ionosphere, on the amplitude and phase of EM reflection physical science are also investigated in this study. The simulation results show that an EM wave at a high frequency induces a strong effective wave with a stable phase physica and a significantly small interferential wave. Moreover, the lunar illumination is more effective under EM waves in low frequency bands; the characteristics of the lunar dust have a notable influence on the transmission and absorption coefficients of the effective waves.

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These conclusions help in real applications involving the detection of the lunar surface soil permittivity by spaceborne radar in various lunar environments. Keywords: lunar exploration, dielectric constant of lunar soil, dust plasma in the lunar ionosphere, improved scattering matrix method, electromagnetic wave Go to: 1.

reflection physical science

Introduction The Moon is the only satellite of the Earth, and the study of the Moon has great significance. In particular, it is imperative to detect the related parameters of the lunar surface topography and lunar soil medium.

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These together present the geological structure of the Moon, which can provide the basis for future detector landings [ 1 ]. At present, researchers have carried plenty of studies by using a radar to detect the dielectric constant of lunar soil.

reflection physical science

Yushkova and Yuhkov discussed the possibility of measuring the dielectric properties of lunar soil by using the bistatic radar method. Some methods to calculate the real part of the dielectric permittivity and the loss tangent of the lunar soil are proposed [ 2 ]. Hongo et al.]

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