Republican party platform 1860 - rectoria.unal.edu.co

Republican party platform 1860 republican party platform 1860.

Having worked on attaining the franchise for so long, northern black men anxiously awaited the ratification of the Republican party platform 1860 Amendment in early Northern black women, of course, had not gained even that right. During the s, Sojourner Truth, Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, and other northern black women activists continued to address the issue of equal rights, particularly with regard to suffrage, from the dual perspective of a black and female identity.

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Even when they adopted the strategy rpublican the broader woman suffrage movement in calling for the vote based on the citizenship clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, or on a hypothetical Sixteenth Amendment, they emphasized the needs of black women. But, much as they had done during the suffrage debates republican party platform 1860 the late s, black women often stood between most black men and white women on the issue. Truth perhaps best illustrates this tendency to occupy a middle ground. Although she spoke at Platforj meetings go here the early s, she also attended some NWSA meetings and lobbied vigorously for a Sixteenth Amendment, arguing that the Fourteenth Amendment must be reinterpreted in favor of women as taxpayers and citizens.

In an protest, she and several other black and white NWSA members went to the polls in an unsuccessful attempt to vote. As a founder of the American Woman Suffrage Association and a major reepublican in its annual meetings during the early and mids, Harper was less inclined than Truth to occupy a middle ground between the two organizations. Yet, unlike most white feminists, she believed that black men needed the vote click than did white women.

Northern men did not have republican party platform 1860 endure the double burden of gender and race, but they were painfully aware that virulent racism persisted among many northern whites. Convinced that the Fifteenth Amendment was as much a statement of an ideal as a concrete addition to their legal rights, Douglass pointed, with genuine alarm, to the escalation of Ku Klux Klan violence and intimidation in the South as well as the substantial control over voter qualifications that the amendment gave the states. He was particularly troubled by the abundant evidence that most white Americans had not forgotten the lessons derived from hundreds of years of slavery.

republican party platform 1860

That the Democratic Party, almost to a man, had rejected every initiative that sought to extend equal rights to blacks was especially ominous. Not surprisingly, following the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment, which northern Democratic state legislators overwhelmingly rejected, Democrats in a number of northern states resorted to delaying tactics, legal challenges, intimidation, and violence to prevent blacks from voting. Republican party platform 1860 of these incidents involved local party officials who simply denied the legitimacy of the constitutional mandate.

Even after a black Ohioan successfully sued in federal court under the first Enforcement Act when he was denied the right to vote, local election officials in the state continued to deny 160 ballot to African Americans. Inspired by such provocative appeals, a white mob in Camden, New Jersey, attacked blacks who had just voted in the elections.

Philadelphia, which had the largest black population of any angry men 10 quotes city, witnessed the worst political intimidation and violence directed toward blacks in the North. Indeed, in the municipal elections, officials in the republican party platform 1860 ward required African Americans to have two white citizens vouch for their eligibility before being allowed to register; at one polling place in the fifth ward, all whites were permitted to vote before any blacks could cast their ballots.

Many Philadelphia blacks voted early in the day in this election so as to avoid violent resistance by Democratic toughs; when a disturbance occurred, the Democratic mayor headed off a confrontation by calling in the state militia. Unfortunately, in the election the militia was unable to prevent a mob from attacking blacks and killing three men, including Octavius Catto, who had played an important role in the equal rights movement since its inception.

None of the rioters in this deadly incident was ever prosecuted. The vast majority of northern African Americans supported the Republican Party because they knew very well what their interests were and who their friends and enemies were. A black New Jersey resident forcefully expressed the widely held conviction among blacks that generations of oppression had forced them to distinguish carefully between those who wished them harm and those who did not. Self-protection, common sense, and reason, he stated, dictated that blacks would not vote for those who hated them. Northern blacks aligned themselves with the Republican party platform 1860 Party for a number of ideological, personal, and practical reasons.

republican party platform 1860

Most northern black leaders also had long shared with white Republicans an attachment to temperance, morality, and law and order. There were also eminently practical considerations that motivated northern blacks to vote Republican. They were moved in part by the realization that the party was solely responsible for whatever rights and privileges they enjoyed.

The other side of this repubilcan, of course, was the prospect of losing these gains if the Democrats returned to power. Thus, it is not surprising that this web page northern blacks were profoundly troubled by the defection of several leading Republicans in to the Liberal Republicans, who supported civil service reform and a more lenient policy toward the South.

They repeatedly condemned the http://rectoria.unal.edu.co/uploads/tx_felogin/art-therapy-and-the-creative-process/future-military-weapons.php for seeking to destroy the Republican Party and thus endangering the rights that African Americans had so recently achieved. Northern blacks were keenly aware that their only hope of republican party platform 1860 and, with any luck, building on their rights as citizens lay with white Republicans, especially Radicals such as Charles Sumner. Yet his decision, which was fueled primarily by his alienation from President Grant, did not lessen either his commitment to equal rights for blacks or their determination to work with him toward that objective. Throughout the first half of the s, they vigorously lobbied for passage of his civil rights bill. With the creation of the National Executive Committee of Colored Persons in and the launch of their crusade for sweeping federal legislation, repuvlican rights activists throughout the republican party platform 1860 experienced a revived sense of being part of a truly national movement.]

republican party platform 1860

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