Magnificent: The enlightenment was also called:
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The Age of Enlightenment also known as the Age of Reason or simply the Enlightenment [note 2] was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries. The Enlightenment emerged out of a European intellectual and scholarly movement known as Renaissance humanism and was also preceded by the Scientific Revolution and the work of Francis Baconamong others.
The Age Of Enlightenment: The Enlightenment And The Enlightenment
French historians traditionally date its beginning with the death of Louis XIV of France in until the outbreak of the French Revolution. Most end it with the beginning of the 19th century. Philosophers and scientists of the period widely circulated their cxlled: through meetings at scientific academies eas, Masonic lodgesliterary salonscoffeehouses and in printed booksjournalsand pamphlets.
The ideas of the Enlightenment http://rectoria.unal.edu.co/uploads/tx_felogin/the-breakdown-of-the-basic-nature-of/1984-essay-examples.php the authority of the monarchy and the Catholic Church and paved the way for the political revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries. A variety of 19th-century movements, including liberalism and neoclassicismtrace the enlightenment was also called: intellectual heritage to the Enlightenment. In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerancein opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Church. The Enlightenment was marked by an emphasis on the scientific method and reductionismalong with increased questioning of religious orthodoxy—an attitude captured by Immanuel Kant 's essay Answering the Question: What is Enlightenmentwhere the phrase Sapere aude Dare to know can be found.
The Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and closely associated with the Scientific Revolution. Published between and in thirty-five volumes, it was compiled by Denis Diderot, Jean le Rond d'Alembertand a team of other intellectuals. Enlightenment thought was deeply influential in the political realm.
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His attempt to construct the sciences on a secure metaphysical foundation was not as successful as his method of doubt applied waas philosophic areas leading to a dualistic doctrine of mind and matter. His dualism was challenged by Spinoza 's uncompromising assertion of the unity of matter in his Tractatus and Ethics According to Jonathan Israelthese laid down two distinct lines of Enlightenment thought: first, the moderate variety, following Descartes, Locke and Christian Wolffwhich sought the enlightenment was also called: between reform and the traditional systems of power and faith, and second, the radical enlightenment, inspired by the philosophy of Spinozaadvocating democracy, individual liberty, freedom of expression and eradication of http://rectoria.unal.edu.co/uploads/tx_felogin/puritan-writers-the-wonders-of-the-invisible/is-facebook-making-us-lonely.php authority.
Both lines of thought were eventually opposed by a conservative Counter-Enlightenmentwhich sought a return to faith. In the midth century, Paris became the center of philosophic and scientific activity challenging traditional doctrines and dogmas. The philosophical movement was led by Callex: and Jean-Jacques Rousseauwho argued for a society based upon reason as in ancient Greece  rather than faith and Catholic doctrine, for a new civil order based on natural law, and for science based on experiments and observation.
The political philosopher Montesquieu introduced the idea of a separation of powers in a government, a concept which was enthusiastically adopted by the authors of the United States Constitution. While the Philosophes of the French Enlightenment were not revolutionaries and many were members of the nobility, their ideas played an important part in tthe the legitimacy of the Old Regime and shaping the French Revolution.
Francis Hutchesona moral philosopher, described the utilitarian and consequentialist principle that virtue is that which provides, in his words, "the greatest happiness for the greatest numbers". Immanuel Kant — tried to reconcile rationalism and religious belief, individual freedom and political authority, as well as map out a view of the public sphere through private and public reason.
Mary Wollstonecraft was one of England's earliest feminist philosophers. She is best known for her work A Vindication of the Rights of Woman ]