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A dust explosion is the rapid combustion of fine particles suspended in the air within an enclosed location. Dust explosions can occur where any dispersed powdered combustible material is present in high-enough concentrations in the atmosphere or other oxidizing gaseous medium, such as pure oxygen. In cases when fuel plays the role of a combustible material, the explosion is known as a fuel-air explosion. Dust explosions are a frequent hazard in coal mines , grain elevators , and other industrial environments. They are also commonly used by special effects artists, filmmakers , and pyrotechnicians , given their spectacular appearance and ability to be safely contained under certain carefully controlled conditions.

Upper big branch mine disaster case study Video

UPPER BIG BRANCH MINE EXPLOSION CASE STUDY upper big branch mine disaster case study Upper big branch mine disaster case study

A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Oceanand a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Oceancomparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms". The opposite direction of circulation is due to the Coriolis http://rectoria.unal.edu.co/uploads/tx_felogin/the-breakdown-of-the-basic-nature-of/great-performers-possess-outstanding-technique-but-may-not-have-deep-musical-understanding.php.

upper big branch mine disaster case study

Tropical cyclones typically form over large bodies of relatively warm link. They derive their energy through the evaporation of water from the ocean surface, which ultimately recondenses into clouds and rain when moist air rises and cools to saturation.

This energy source differs from that of mid-latitude cyclonic stormssuch as nor'easters and European windstormswhich are fueled primarily by horizontal temperature contrasts. Tropical cyclones are typically between and 2, km 60 and 1, mi in diameter.

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Every year tropical cyclones impact various regions of the globe including the Gulf Coast of North America, Australia, India and Bangladesh. The strong rotating winds of a tropical cyclone are a result of the conservation of angular momentum imparted by the Earth's rotation as air flows inwards toward the axis of rotation.

upper big branch mine disaster case study

Tropical cyclones are almost unknown in the South Atlantic due to a consistently strong wind shear and a weak Intertropical Convergence Bgi. Conversely, the African easterly jet and areas of atmospheric instability give rise to cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Seawhile cyclones near Australia owe their genesis to the Asian monsoon and Western Pacific Warm Pool.

The primary energy source for these storms is warm ocean waters. These storms are therefore typically strongest when over or near water, and weaken quite rapidly over land.

This causes coastal regions to be particularly vulnerable to tropical cyclones, compared to inland regions. Coastal damage may be caused by strong winds and upper big branch mine disaster case study, high waves due to windsstorm surges due to wind and severe pressure changesand the potential of spawning tornadoes. Tropical cyclones draw in air from a large area and concentrate the water content of that air from atmospheric moisture and moisture evaporated from water into precipitation over a much smaller area. This replenishing of moisture-bearing air after rain may cause multi-hour or multi-day extremely heavy rain up to 40 kilometers 25 mi from the coastline, far beyond the amount of water that the local atmosphere holds at any one time. This in turn can lead to river floodingoverland flooding, and a general overwhelming of local water control structures across a large area.

Although their effects on human populations can be devastating, tropical cyclones may play a role in relieving drought conditions, though this claim is disputed. They also carry heat and energy away from the tropics and transport it towards temperate latitudes, which plays an important role in regulating global climate. A tropical cyclone is the generic term for a warm-cored, non-frontal synoptic-scale low-pressure system over tropical or subtropical waters around the world. Tropical cyclones on either side of the Equator generally have their origins in the Intertropical Convergence Zonewhere winds blow from either the northeast or southeast. At the center of a mature tropical cyclone, air sinks rather than rises. For a sufficiently strong storm, air may sink over a layer deep enough to suppress cloud formation, thereby creating a clear " eye ".

upper big branch mine disaster case study

Weather in the eye is normally calm and free of convective clouds, although the sea may be extremely violent. The cloudy outer edge of the eye is called the "eyewall".]

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