Why is the enlightenment considered a turning point in world history - rectoria.unal.edu.co

Why is the enlightenment considered a turning point in world history - think, what

Toleration is the allowing, permitting, or acceptance of an action, idea, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with. Political scientist Andrew R. Murphy explains that "We can improve our understanding by defining "toleration" as a set of social or political practices and "tolerance" as a set of attitudes. Both these concepts inherently contain the idea of alterity , the state of otherness. Religious toleration may signify "no more than forbearance and the permission given by the adherents of a dominant religion for other religions to exist, even though the latter are looked on with disapproval as inferior, mistaken, or harmful". Toleration assumes there is a conflict over something important, something that cannot otherwise be resolved through normal negotiation without resorting to war or violence. why is the enlightenment considered a turning point in world history.

Why is the enlightenment considered a turning point in world history Video

The Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment - World History - Khan Academy why is the enlightenment considered a turning point in world history

Western culturesometimes equated with Western civilization histkry, Occidental culturethe Western worldWestern societyand European civilizationis the heritage of social normsethical valuestraditional customs, belief systemspolitical systemsartifacts and technologies of the Western world that originated in or are associated with Europe. The term http://rectoria.unal.edu.co/uploads/tx_felogin/i-want-to-cushion-the-shock-of/frankenstein-genres-gothic-fiction.php applies beyond Europe to countries and cultures whose histories are strongly connected to Europe by immigration, colonization, or influence.

For example, Western culture includes determinated countries in the Americas and Oceania. Western culture is most strongly influenced by the Greco-Roman and Christian cultures. Ancient Greece is considered the birthplace of many elements of Western culture, including the development of a democratic system of government and major advances in philosophy, science and mathematics. The expansion of Greek culture into the Hellenistic world of the eastern Mediterranean led to a synthesis between Greek pojnt Near-Eastern cultures, [2] and major advances in literature, engineering, and science, and provided the culture for the expansion of early Christianity and the Greek New Testament.

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Western culture is characterized by a host of artistic, philosophic, literary and legal themes and traditions. Christianityincluding the Roman Catholic Church[7] [8] [9] Protestantism [10] [11] the Eastern Orthodox Churchand Oriental Orthodoxy[12] [13] has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization since at least the 4th century, [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] as did Judaism. Empiricism later gave rise to the scientific methodthe scientific revolutionand the Age of Enlightenment. Western culture continued to develop with the Christianisation of European society during the Middle Ages, the reforms triggered by the Renaissance of the 12th century and 13th century under the influence of the Islamic world via Al-Andalus and Sicily including the transfer of technology from the East, and Latin translations of Arabic texts on science and philosophy[23] [24] [25] and the Italian Renaissance as Greek scholars fleeing the fall of the Byzantine Empire after the Muslim conquest of Constantinople brought classical traditions and philosophy.

Tendencies that have come to define modern Western societies include the concept of political pluralismindividualismprominent subcultures or countercultures such as New Age movements and increasing cultural syncretism resulting from globalization and human migration. The West as a geographical area is unclear and undefined. More often the ideology of a state's inhabitants is what will be used to categorize it as a Western society.

There is some disagreement about what nations should or should not be included in the category and at what times. Many parts of the Click here Roman Byzantine Empire are considered Western today but were considered Eastern in the past.

However, in the past it was also the Eastern Roman Empire that had many features now seen as "Western," preserving Roman law, which was first codified by Justinian in the east, [38] as well as the traditions of scholarship around PlatoAristotleand Euclid that were later introduced to Italy during the Renaissance by Greek scholars fleeing the fall of Constantinople. Geographically, the " West " of today would include Europe especially the states that collectively form the European Unionthe United Kingdom, Norway, and Switzerland together with extra-European territories belonging to the English-speaking worldthe Hispanidadthe Lusosphere ; and the Francophonie in the wider context.

Since the context is highly biased and context-dependent, there is no agreed definition of what the "West" is.

why is the enlightenment considered a turning point in world history

It is difficult to determine which individuals fit into which category and the East—West contrast is sometimes criticized as relativistic and arbitrary. Stereotypical views see more "the West" have been labeled Occidentalismparalleling Orientalism —the term for here 19th-century stereotyped views of "the East".

It has been disputed by some philosophers whether Western culture can be considered a historically sound, unified body of thought. As Europeans discovered the wider world, old concepts adapted. The area that had formerly been considered the Orient "the East" became the Near East as the interests of the European powers interfered with Meiji Japan and Qing China for the first time in the 19th century.

The earliest civilizations which influenced the development of Western culture were those of Mesopotamia ; the area of the Tigris—Euphrates river systemlargely corresponding to modern-day Iraqnortheastern Syriasoutheastern Turkey and southwestern Iran : the cradle of civilization.]

One thought on “Why is the enlightenment considered a turning point in world history

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