Era of mass incarceration - rectoria.unal.edu.co

Era of mass incarceration Video

Mass Incarceration, Visualized era of mass incarceration.

There is a widely accepted narrative about incarceration in the United States that unequal childhoods something like this: At the dawn of the Reagan era in a nation of million Americans, the incarcerated population was a little more than half a million people with 8 percent behind bars for drug offenses. As a result, nearly 2. In this all-too-common telling, punitive excess, era of mass incarceration incarceration, and racial disparity are comingled — a grim tale of three tragic characters arising together from the carceral policies of the last four decades. It would follow, then, that to address one of them would be to make inroads against them all.

But this logic is much too thin, mostly serving to make a long story short.

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Instead, the more accurate account of imprisonment in the United States reveals that punitive excess, mass incarceration, and era of mass incarceration disparity are distinct phenomena. To establish a fair and unbiased justice system loosened from punitive excess and mass incarceration, we must reckon with the central role race plays in systemic outcomes. The entrenchment of racial hierarchy in the United States began before the nation came to be and has long endured. Even a civil war could not straighten out the racial oppression incarcegation the nation had wrought. Though the civil rights movement a century later helped the nation painstakingly move toward becoming a more inclusive democracy race remained a primary social determinant of the measure of justice and citizenship one could access.

Its fingerprints are everywhere.

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The federal government forcibly corralled more thanJapanese Americans into internment camps during World War II while sparing nearly era of mass incarceration Americans of German and Italian descent. Today, Latino immigrants and undocumented denizens are caged in detention facilities and separated from their families, and Black Americans are incarceeation at alarmingly high rates and are overrepresented in punitive excesses such as solitary confinement and the death penalty. This history and the policies it birthed resulted msas a conflated ontology of race, social threats, and crime. That is, sociologists and political scientists have found that, in a society with a built-in racial hierarchy, the visual markers of race and ethnicity create boundaries of trust and empathy, leading to civic and social distance between citizens. When certain communities of color are treated like a scourge and caricatured as incompatible with American values, their very presence can create a heightened sense of insecurity in the broader society.

African-Americans and the New Deal

The criminal justice system has been fashioned to manage these societal anxieties by exerting control over the population deemed a danger to the American way of life. The Black American experience at the turn of the twentieth century is an example of this sociology in motion.

In the early decades of the Great Migration, when millions of Black Americans left the brutality and economic insecurity of the South to seek opportunities in northern continue reading midwestern states, they encountered communities of white European immigrants who were themselves often discriminated against and treated as second class citizens. The ensuing competition for employment and housing — as well as a desire for their own social advancement — caused many white citizens to set aside nativist resentments toward white Era of mass incarceration immigrants and unite in opposition to the Black arrivals.

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These immigrants were able to secure patronage jobs, particularly in law enforcementas a buffer between Black Americans and white political and economic elites. Research reveals that the rate of arrest and incarceration of Black Americans in Great Migration destination cities increased as the proportion of white immigrants on local police forces increased. Charges for petty offenses against Black people skyrocketed, turning accusations of crimes like suspicious behavior, disorderly conduct, and public drunkenness into instruments for social control.

As Martin Luther King Jr. The twisted logic ran: If the black man was inferior, he was not oppressed. Any serious attempts at reform and making our justice system truly just will require a direct confrontation with what African American studies scholar Eddie Glaude Jr. This is the idea that the true plague in American society is that people of color, particularly Black people in a nation where chattel slavery featured so prominently, are simply valued less. It is a product of our history that people of color remain overly exposed to the darkest corners era of mass incarceration worst impulses of our criminal justice system, its institutions and practices, and its actors.

At the same time, policy reforms to end mass incarceration and cease excessive punishment are critically important. Treating the threat of incarceration as a last resort instead of a first response to any social problem is an unassailable good for any fair and just society. Respecting the humanity and dignity of all people by refusing to subject them to cruel and unusual punishments not only helps us live up to our constitutional principles, but it also ushers the United States one step closer to being the more perfect union outlined in era of mass incarceration national canon.]

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