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exercise 32 anatomy of blood vessels pdf

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Exercise 32 anatomy of blood vessels pdf Video

232L Ex. 32a, 32b Blood vessels

Hypertension HTN or HTalso known as high blood pressure HBPis a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. High blood pressure is classified as primary essential hypertension or secondary hypertension.

Blood pressure is classified by two measurements, the systolic and diastolic pressures, which are the maximum and minimum pressures, respectively. Lifestyle changes and medications can lower blood pressure and decrease the risk of health complications. Hypertension is rarely accompanied by symptoms, and its identification is usually through screeningor when seeking healthcare for an unrelated problem. Some people with high blood pressure report headaches particularly at the back of the head and in the morningas well as lightheadednessvertigotinnitus buzzing or hissing in the earsaltered vision or fainting episodes. On physical examinationhypertension may be associated with the presence of changes in the optic fundus seen by ophthalmoscopy. Hypertension with certain specific additional signs and symptoms may suggest secondary hypertension, i.

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Coarctation of the aorta frequently causes a decreased blood pressure in the lower extremities relative to the arms, or delayed or absent femoral arterial pulses. Pheochromocytoma may cause abrupt "paroxysmal" episodes of hypertension accompanied by headache, palpitationspale appearanceand excessive sweating. Severely elevated blood pressure equal to or greater than a systolic or diastolic of is referred to as a hypertensive crisis.

Hypertensive crisis is categorized as either continue reading urgency or hypertensive emergencyaccording to the absence or presence of end organ damage, respectively. In hypertensive urgency, there is no evidence of end organ damage resulting from the elevated blood pressure.

In these cases, oral medications are used to lower the BP gradually over 24 to 48 hours.

In hypertensive emergency, there is evidence of direct damage to one or more organs. Pre-eclampsia is a serious condition of the second half of pregnancy and following delivery characterised by increased blood pressure and the presence of protein in the urine.

exercise 32 anatomy of blood vessels pdf

When symptoms of pre-eclampsia occur the most common are headache, visual disturbance often "flashing lights"vomiting, pain over the stomach, and swelling. Pre-eclampsia can occasionally progress to a life-threatening condition called eclampsiawhich is a hypertensive emergency and has several serious complications including vision loss article source, brain swellingseizureskidney failurepulmonary edemaand disseminated intravascular coagulation a blood clotting disorder. In contrast, gestational hypertension is defined as new-onset hypertension during pregnancy without protein in the urine.

Failure to thriveseizuresirritabilitylack of energyand difficulty in breathing [32] can be associated with hypertension in newborns and young infants.

exercise 32 anatomy of blood vessels pdf

In older infants and children, exercisse can cause headache, unexplained irritability, fatiguefailure to thrive, blurred visionnosebleedsand facial paralysis. Hypertension results from a complex interaction of genes and environmental factors. Numerous common genetic variants with small effects on blood pressure have been identified [34] as well as some rare genetic variants with large effects on blood pressure.

exercise 32 anatomy of blood vessels pdf

These sentinel SNP are located within genes related to vascular smooth muscle and renal function. DNA methylation might affect in some way linking common genetic variation to multiple phenotypes even though mechanisms underlying these associations are not understood.]

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