Singer moral obligation VideoNon-Human Animals: Crash Course Philosophy #42 singer moral obligation
It refers to experience that feels good, that involves the enjoyment of something.
Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh Journalist and Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Introduction Hedonism refers to a family of theories, all singer moral obligation which have in common that pleasure plays a central role in them. Psychological or motivational morxl claims that our behavior is determined by desires to increase pleasure and to decrease pain. In this sense, it has a negative connotation, linked to the egoistic pursuit of short-term gratification by indulging in sensory pleasures without regard for the consequences.
Both pleasure and pain come in degrees and have been thought of as a dimension going from positive degrees through a neutral point to negative degrees.
Theories of pleasure try to determine what all these pleasurable experiences have in common, what is essential to them. But this is only possible if pleasure itself is a unified phenomenon.
This has been put into question, mainly due to the wide variety of pleasure experiences which seem to have no one shared feature in common. False beliefs may mislead us and thus our actions may fail to result in pleasure, but even failed actions are motivated by considerations of http://rectoria.unal.edu.co/uploads/tx_felogin/the-breakdown-of-the-basic-nature-of/quitting-smoking-essay.php, according to psychological hedonism. It asserts singer moral obligation being motivated by pleasure is self-defeating in the sense that it leads to less actual pleasure than following other motives.
It has initial intuitive plausibility because pleasure-seeking behavior is a common phenomenon and may indeed dominate our conduct at times. But the claim that this can be generalized to singer moral obligation behavior is highly controversial. But it is doubtful that this can work for all cases, like, for example, for a self-sacrificing soldier. Reinterpreting all these cases in terms of pleasure would go against introspective insight. As such, hard http://rectoria.unal.edu.co/uploads/tx_felogin/children-at-home-and-abroad/what-is-meant-by-the-social-construction-of-race.php evidence would be needed to confirm it, just being able to tell a plausible story is not sufficient.
In the narrow sense, ethical hedonism is a form of consequentialism since it determines the rightness of an action based on its consequences, which are measured here in terms of pleasure and pain. On the positive side, these include the intuition that the consequences of our actions matter and that through them we ought to make the world a better place. But the more restricted version in the form of negative consequentialism or negative utilitarianism focuses only on reducing suffering. According to the egoist version, each agent should only aim at maximizing her own pleasure. This position singer moral obligation usually not held in very high esteem.
Oblligation common objection against utilitarianism is that it is too demanding. It has also been referred to as evaluative hedonism or value hedonism, and it is sometimes included in ethical hedonism. An entity has intrinsic value obligafion it is good in itself or good for its own sake. Axiological hedonism is a claim about intrinsic value, not about value at large. It also reflects the introspective insight that pleasure feels valuable as something please click for source singer moral obligation. He thinks that it is rational to singer moral obligation sijger offer since other things besides pleasure matter. For example, G. Moore suggests in a famous thought experiment that a world consisting only of a beautiful landscape is better than an ugly and disgusting world even if there is no conscious being to observe and enjoy or suffer either world.
So, for example, virtue is good because it tends to increase the overall pleasure of the virtuous person or of the people around them. This problem is akin to the Euthyphro dilemma: is something beautiful because we enjoy it or do we enjoy it because it is beautiful? One important distinction in this context is the difference between pure and mixed pleasure.
One way to address this issue is to associate beauty with a special type of pleasure: aesthetic or disinterested pleasure. Opposite to hedonism, there is hedonophobia, which is a strong aversion to experiencing pleasure.]