Adult vs embryonic stem cells VideoWhat's the difference between embryonic and adult stem cells?
Adult vs embryonic stem cells - opinionThe subventricular zone SVZ is a region situated on the outside wall of each lateral ventricle of the vertebrate brain. In embryonic life, the SVZ refers to a secondary proliferative zone containing neural progenitor cells , which divide to produce neurons in the process of neurogenesis. In the developing cerebral cortex , which resides in the dorsal telencephalon , the SVZ and VZ are transient tissues that do not exist in the adult. The adult SVZ is composed of four distinct layers  of variable thickness and cell density as well as cellular composition. Along with the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus , the SVZ is one of two places where neurogenesis has been found to occur in the adult mammalian brain. The SVZ also appears to be involved in the generation of astrocytes following a brain injury. The innermost layer Layer I contains a single layer monolayer of ependymal cells lining the ventricular cavity; these cells possess apical cilia and several basal expansions that may stand in either parallel or perpendicular to the ventricular surface. These expansions may interact intimately with the astrocytic processes that are interconnected with the hypocellular layer Layer II. The secondary layer Layer II provides for a hypocellular gap abutting the former and has been shown to contain a network of functionally correlated Glial Fibrillary Acid Protein GFAP -positive astrocytic processes that are linked to junctional complexes, yet lack cell bodies except for the rare neuronal somata. adult vs embryonic stem cells
The hES cell derived CD34 hematopoietic stem cells can be potentially used for many gene therapy applications. Here we evaluated the capacity of hES cell derived CD34 cells to give rise to normal macrophages as a first step towards using these cells in viral infection studies and in developing novel stem cell based gene therapy strategies for AIDS.
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Undifferentiated normal and lentiviral vector transduced hES cells were cultured on S17 mouse bone marrow stromal cell layers to derive CD34 hematopoietic progenitor cells. The differentiated CD34 cells isolated from cystic bodies were further cultured in cytokine media to derive macrophages.
Phenotypic and functional analyses were carried out to compare these with that of fetal liver CD34 cell derived macrophages. Tests evaluating phagocytosis, upregulation of the costimulatory molecule B7. When infected with HIV-1, the differentiated macrophages supported productive viral infection.
What are Adult Stem Cells?
Lentiviral vector transduced hES cells expressing the transgene GFP were evaluated similarly like above. The transgenic hES cells also gave rise to macrophages with normal phenotypic and functional characteristics indicating no vector mediated adverse effects during differentiation. Phenotypically normal and functionally competent macrophages could be derived from hES-CD34 cells.
Since these cells are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, adult vs embryonic stem cells provide a uniform source of macrophages for viral infection studies. Based on these results, it is also now feasible to transduce hES-CD34 cells link anti-HIV genes such as inhibitory siRNAs and test their antiviral efficacy in down stream differentiated cells such as macrophages which are among the primary cells that need to be protected against HIV-1 infection.
Human embryonic stem cells hES cells show great promise for many novel cellular therapies due to their pluripotent nature [ 1 ]. These cells have the capacity to give rise to mature cells and tissues that arise from all three germ layers during embryonic development [ 2 - 4 ]. Several pluripotent hES cell lines have so far been derived from the inner cell mass of human blastocysts and can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state [ 5 - 7 ]. Thus, adult vs embryonic stem cells cells provide a renewable source of pluripotent stem cells from which many types of differentiated cells could be produced for experimental and therapeutic purposes. Cell differentiation protocols currently exist for the derivation of neurons, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, hematopoietic progenitor cells, keratinocytes, osteoblasts, and hepatocytes to name a few [ 2389 ].
Using such approaches, many possibilities exist for treating a number of genetic and immune system disorders [ 1 ]. Many novel applications can be foreseen for hES cells in infectious disease research. AIDS is a potential disease that can benefit from exploiting hES cells for cell replacement therapy as they have the capacity to differentiate into various hematopoietic cells.
HIV continues to be a major global public health problem with infections increasing at an alarming rate [ 1011 ].]