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The American Revolutionary War —also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from thirteen American colonies of British America in Congress against Great Britain over their objection to Parliament's taxation policies and lack of colonial representation.
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The cost of victory in the to French and Indian War and the to Seven Amerocan War left the British government deeply in debt; the colonies where the war was fought equipped and populated the British forces there, at the cost of millions of their own funds. When Parliament imposed the Intolerable Acts upon Massachusettstwelve colonies sent delegates to the First Continental Congress to draft a Petition to the King and organize a boycott of British goods.
Fighting broke out on 19 April the British garrison at Boston was harassed by Massachusetts militia at Lexington and Concord after destroying colonial Assembly powder stores. In response, they invaded British Quebec but were repulsed.
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In JulyCongress unanimously passed the Declaration of Independence. Hopes of a quick settlement were supported by American sympathizers within Parliament who opposed Lord North 's "coercion policy" in the colonies. Washington retreated to Valley Forge during the winter of — where Prussian allied General von Steuben drilled the largely untrained Continental Army into an organized fighting unit. French Foreign Minister Vergennes saw the war as a way to create an America economically and militarily dependent on France, not Britain. Although talks on a formal alliance began in latethey proceeded slowly until the Patriot victory at Saratoga in October Fears Congress might come to an early settlement with Britain resulted click France and the United States signing two treaties in February The first was a commercial treatythe second a Treaty of Alliance ; in return for a French guarantee of American independence, Congress agreed to join the war against Britain and defend the French West Indies.
Although Spain refused to join the Franco-American alliance, in the Treaty of Aranjuez they agreed to support France in its global war with Britainhoping to regain losses incurred in After capturing Savannahdefeats at the Battle of Kings Mountain and the Battle of Cowpens forced Cornwallis to retreat to Yorktownwhere his army was besieged by an allied French and American force. An attempt to resupply the american revolution game online was repulsed by the French navy at the Battle of the Chesapeakeand Cornwallis surrendered in October Although their war with France and Spain continued for another two years, Yorktown american revolution game online the British will to continue the war in North America.
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Preliminary articles were signed in Novemberand in April Congress accepted British terms; these included independence, evacuation of British troops, cession of territory up to the Mississippi River and navigation to the sea, as well as fishing rights in Newfoundland. More American territory changed hands in than any settlement before or after, destabilising existing alliances and trade networks, and leading to conflict between settlers and American Indians.
The Proclamation Line of was intended to refocus colonial expansion north into Nova Scotia or south into Florida while separating American Indians and colonials by restricting settlement in the west. Both sides agreed with the principle but disagreed on where to set the border; keeping the peace required garrisons here regular troops along the frontier, and led to disputes with the colonial legislatures over who should bear the expense.]