All rights reserved. A recent review and meta-analysis examine the link in ADHD. The immune system plays a role in brain development ,1 and there is evidence that activation of the maternal immune system during pregnancy—whether by infection, chronic inflammation, or autoimmune disease—is associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental autoimmune diseases diabetes in the offspring. Only 1 previous study examined the association between any maternal autoimmune disease and ADHD risk in children. Birth data were linked to all hospital admissions for both mother and child, and pharmaceutical data from the child for treatment of ADHD through registers.
Children linked to a first ADHD event before age 3 were excluded. Children were followed to death autoimmune diseases diabetes at the end of follow-up in December Children whose mother had at least 1 hospitalization for autoimmune disease were considered exposed. Exposed and http://rectoria.unal.edu.co/uploads/tx_felogin/i-want-to-cushion-the-shock-of/transgender-essay.php mothers were propensity matched based on age, country of birth, socioeconomic status, place of residency, parity, smoking during pregnancy, and mental health diagnosis.
Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association of maternal autoimmune disease and ADHD, adjusting for child sex.
Analyses were performed for any maternal autoimmune disease and individual conditions with at least 15 cases of ADHD among exposed children. Included studies were assessed for study quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale.
Meta-analyses of any and specific maternal autoimmune disease with ADHD in the offspring were performed by calculating random-effects pooled hazard ratios HRs and inverse-variance weighting. Propensity score matching including a cohort of 12, exposed children and 50, controls. During follow-up, male 3.
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Five studies, including the present cohort, were included in the meta-analysis. Two studies estimated the association with any maternal autoimmune disease, and 11 specific conditions were investigated in 2 or more individual studies.
The authors found an association between any maternal autoimmune disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and psoriasis in both the present study and meta-analysis, and an association with hyperthyroidism autoimmune diseases diabetes the meta-analysis. Diabetee noted significant heterogeneity in findings across individual studies, and that non-immune factors such as glycemic control in type 1 diabetes and endocrine aspects of hyperthyroidism may also contribute to associations with ADHD. Strengths of the present study include the hybrid design, including a large population-based cohort and meta-analysis. The Bottom Line Maternal autoimmune disease is associated with increased risk of ADHD in offspring, adding evidence that adverse maternal immune function during pregnancy may alter fetal neurodevelopment.]