Declarative memory is mediated by the VideoBrain Structures and Memory declarative memory is mediated by the.
This study contributes to a better understanding of the conditions that an indefinite expression must meet to be classified as a PI or as an NCI. She also addressed the nature of some Spanish negative expressions e.
From the behavior in 2 Laka postulated that expressions of the sort illustrated by nadie are Negative Polarity Items NPIssince the postverbal one needs a negative marker to be licensed: 2a vs. Footnote 1. Under close inspection, though, the above two claims do not appear to be theoretically compatible with one another.
A central characteristic of NC is that NCIs can give rise to semantic negation in certain contexts e. We stick to the latter term for its resemblance to the syntactic relationship these items participate in. By contrast, those items that need to be licensed in specific environments affective, Klima ; Strawson downward entailing, Ladusaw ; Zwarts and von Fintel ; non-veridical, Zwarts and Giannakidou meediated,are usually named NPIs. We refer to them with the term Polarity Item PI rather than weak NPIs, Giannakidou and Zeijlstrabecause—beyond the distribution of licensors and licensees, and the characterization of the environments where these items are licit—our focus in this declarative memory is mediated by the is the syntactic and semantic status of polarity sensitive items not restricted to negative contexts in Basque.
Footnote 2. Looking at the data in 2 and 3 it is legitimate to ask what the differences between Spanish nadie and Basque inor bt, and to ask more generally what is to be expected from a language that has NCIs and from a language that has PIs. Footnote 3 Therefore, we seek to provide empirical confirmation for the claim that Basque items of the inor type are PIs rather than NCIs, bearing in mind that the former would be a requirement for an existential reading in non-negative contexts, and the latter would be a requirement for Basque to be an NC language.
This investigation is part of a more general research topic, namely under which conditions an indefinite expression can be said to behave as a PI or an NCI. The first of these issues was addressed experimentally in Etxeberria et al. The results of this study, in which Basque was compared to two varieties hy Spanish namely Castilian Spanish and the Spanish used in the Basque Countryshow that Basque participants judge most items with an overt negative marker with high acceptability ratings, and most items without it with low acceptability declarative memory is mediated by the, and furthermore that in Basque single negation is the preferred interpretation both in sentences with and without an overt negative marker with two i - indefinites.
declarative memory is mediated by the In Spanish, by contrast, sentences with low acceptability ratings are interpreted at chance between single negation and double negation js both varieties. Etxeberria et al. The second issue is that i - indefinites appear to need the presence of an independent negative marker in fragment answers Etxeparethus showing that inor in 5Ab is not an NCI. Footnote 4 The example in 6A shows that Spanish nadie is well-formed in fragments and conveys a negative reading. Although it may seem that the nature of Basque i - indefinites is settled with this test and with further information found in descriptive studies, we aimed to provide experimental confirmation for ddeclarative PI status of these items beyond fragment answers. What is important for our current purposes is that if Basque i - indefinites are PIs, they are mediaged to contribute declarative memory is mediated by the existential reading to the sentence in declarative affirmative sentences, as PIs cannot possibly give rise to semantic negation by themselves.
By contrast, if they are NCIs, they will have the potential to contribute a negative reading when not overtly licensed by a negative marker. In this paper this prediction is tested experimentally. In Sect. Section 4 presents the results of this investigation, and Sect. It also discusses the contribution of this study to the more general research topic on the conditions under which an indefinite expression can be said to behave as one type of expression PI or the other NCIand what is to be expected from a language that only has PIs, and from a language that has both.
This section also concludes the paper. In addition, in Standard Basque the lexical verb has to precede the auxiliary verb in declarative affirmative sentences i. See 7. Footnote 5. In negative sentences the auxiliary raises to the position following the negation i. This is illustrated in 8a.
In Basque the presence of an overt negative sentential marker is uniformly required for negative dependencies Laka ; Etxepare ; de Rijk ; Etxeberria et al. Footnote 6. N single one even. Footnote 7 These items have exactly the same syntactic distribution as i - indefinites, but have a more complex internal syntax and can combine with partitive nominal complements, as illustrated in 11b.
This example shows that the sentential negative marker can license multiple bat ere indefinites while conveying one single declarative memory is mediated by the, exactly like continue reading - indefinites in 4. Bat ere indefinites, just like i - indefinites, cannot form a negative sentence by themselves, as illustrated in 3a above for i - indefinites, and cannot be used in isolation as fragment answers 5Ab.]