Egypt astronomy -

Egypt astronomy

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egypt astronomy

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Day length today: 12h 54m 20s 20 Apr 1 minute, 26 seconds longer than yesterday 19 Apr 2 hours, 24 minutes longer than winter solstice 21 Dec 53 minutes, 3 seconds shorter than summer solstice 20 Jun The Sun's altitude in North Island today. The horizontal line signifies the horizon, the vertical lines show the times of sunrise and sunset. Altitude and heading are displayed below the graph. The graph defaults to current time. Hover over it to select a different time.

Today's Sun Position in North Island

Further information: Ptolemy's world map Geography by Ptolemy, Latin manuscript of the early 15th century Ptolemy's second main work is his Geography also called the Geographiaa compilation of geographical coordinates of the part of the world known to the Roman Empire during his time. He relied somewhat on the work of an earlier geographer, Marinos of Tyreand on gazetteers of the Roman and ancient Persian Empire. As with the model of the Solar System in the Almagest, Ptolemy egypt astronomy all this information into a grand scheme. Following Marinos, he assigned coordinates to all the places and geographic features he knew, in a grid that spanned the globe. Latitude was measured from the equatoras it is today, but Ptolemy preferred [34] to express it as climata, the length of the longest day rather than degrees of arc : the length egypt astronomy the midsummer day increases what is human overpopulation 12h to 24h as one goes from the equator to the polar circle.

In books 2 through 7, he used degrees and put the meridian of 0 longitude at the most western land he knew, the " Egypt astronomy Islands ", often identified as the Canary Islandsas suggested by the location of the six dots labelled the "FORTUNATA" islands near the left extreme of the blue sea of Ptolemy's map here reproduced.

A 15th-century manuscript copy of the Ptolemy world mapreconstituted from Ptolemy's Geography egypt astronomy ADindicating the countries of " Serica " and " Sinae " China at the extreme east, beyond the island of "Taprobane" Sri Lankaoversized and the " Aurea Chersonesus " Malay Peninsula. Prima Europe tabula.

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A 15th-century copy of Ptolemy's map of Britain and Ireland. In the second part of the Geography, he provided the necessary topographic lists, and captions for the maps.

egypt astronomy

The maps in surviving manuscripts of Ptolemy's Geography, however, only date from aboutafter the text was rediscovered by Maximus Planudes. It egypt astronomy egypg that the topographical tables in books 2—7 are cumulative texts — texts which were altered and added to as new knowledge became available in the centuries after Ptolemy.

A printed map from the 15th century depicting Ptolemy's description of the Ecumene, Johannes Schnitzer, engraver.

egypt astronomy

Maps based on scientific principles had been made since the time of Eratosthenesin the 3rd century BC, but Ptolemy improved map projections. It is known from egypt astronomy speech by Eumenius that a world map, an orbis pictus, doubtless based on the Geography, was on display in a school in AugustodunumGaul in the 3rd century. An printed at Ulm inaxtronomy woodcut maps, was the first one printed north of the Alps. The maps look distorted when compared to modern maps, because Ptolemy's data were inaccurate.

One reason is that Ptolemy estimated the size of the Earth as too small: while Eratosthenes found stadia for a great circle degree on the globe, Ptolemy uses stadia in the Geography. egypt astronomy

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It is highly probable that these were the same stadion, since Ptolemy switched from egypt astronomy former scale to the latter between the Syntaxis and the Geography, and severely readjusted longitude degrees accordingly. See also Ancient Greek units of measurement and History of geodesy. Because Ptolemy egypt astronomy many of his key latitudes from crude longest day values, his latitudes are erroneous on average by roughly 1 degree 2 degrees for Byzantium, 4 degrees for Carthage asrronomy, though capable ancient astronomers knew their latitudes to more like a minute.

egypt astronomy

Ptolemy's own latitude was in error by 14'. He agreed Geography egypt astronomy. When switching from stadia per degree tohe or Marinos expanded longitude differences between cities accordingly a point first realized by P. Gosselin inresulting in serious over-stretching of the Earth's east-west scale in degrees, though not distance. Achieving highly precise longitude remained a problem in geography until the application of Galileo 's Jovian moon method in the 18th century. It must be added that his original topographic list cannot be reconstructed: the long tables with numbers were transmitted to posterity through copies containing many scribal errors, and people have always been adding or improving the topographic data: this is a testimony to the persistent popularity of this influential work in the history of cartography.

Main article: Tetrabiblos The mathematician Claudius Ptolemy 'the Alexandrian', as egypt astronomy by a 16th-century engraving [1] Ptolemy has been referred to as "a pro-astrological authority of the highest magnitude".

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Egypt astronomy own title is unknown, but may have been the term found in some Greek manuscripts: Apotelesmatika, roughly meaning "Astrological Outcomes", "Effects" or "Prognostics". That it did not quite attain the unrivaled status of the Almagest was, perhaps, because it did not cover some popular areas of the subject, particularly electional astrology interpreting astrological charts for a particular moment to determine the outcome of a course of action to be initiated at that timeand egypt astronomy astrologywhich were later adoptions. The great popularity that the Tetrabiblos did possess might be attributed to its nature as an exposition of the art astrology, and as a compendium of astrological lore, rather than as a manual. It speaks in general terms, avoiding illustrations and details of practice.

Ptolemy was concerned to defend astrology by defining its limits, compiling astronomical data that he believed was reliable and dismissing practices such as considering the eyypt significance of names egypt astronomy he believed to be zstronomy sound basis. Much of the content of the Tetrabiblos was collected from earlier sources; Ptolemy's achievement was to order his material in a systematic way, showing how the subject could, in his view, be rationalized.]

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