Ethological theory of human development -

Ethological theory of human development

Ethological theory of human development - advise

. ethological theory of human development

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In studies of social animalsthe highest ranking individual of a dominance hierarchy is sometimes designated as the alpha. Malesfemalesor both, can be alphas, depending on the species. Where one male and one female fulfill this role together, they are sometimes referred to as the alpha pair. Other animals in the same social group may exhibit deference or other species-specific subordinate behavior towards ethologicla alpha or alphas.

ethological theory of human development

Alpha animals usually gain preferential access to food and other desirable items or activities, though the extent of this varies widely between species. Male or female alphas may gain preferential access to sex or mates; in some species, only alphas or an alpha pair reproduce. Alphas may achieve their status by superior physical strength ethological theory of human development aggressionor through social efforts and building alliances within the group, [1] or more often, simply by breeding and being the parent of all in their pack.

These fights are often to the death, depending on the animal. Social animals in a hierarchical community are sometimes assigned ranks in ethology studies.

ethological theory of human development

Researcher M. Foster investigated primates and found that the leaders were more likely to be those who did more for those around them instead of being determined by strength. Alpha male baboons monopolize resources and mating access to females, and they are also more likely to suffer from stress. Alpha males may sometimes allow subordinate males to have access to mating, so the subordinate males can serve as "spare dads" and protect devvelopment offspring from other alpha males.

ethological theory of human development

A study on the association of alpha males and females during the non-breeding season in wild Capuchin monkeys Cebus apella nigritus examined whether alpha males are the preferred mate for theorry and, secondly, whether female-alpha status and relationship to the alpha-male can be explained through the individual characteristics and or social network of the female. However, only the alpha females had strong interactions with the alpha males by virtue of a dominance hierarchy among the females in which ethological theory of human development the most dominant and strong females were able to interact with the alpha male.

Common chimpanzees use strength, intelligence, and political alliances to establish and maintain alpha position.

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Males will associate with females for rank acquisition because females dominate the social environment. If a male is to achieve alpha status in ethological theory of human development bonobo group, he must be accepted by the alpha female. High-ranking females rarely interact sexually with other females, but low-ranking females interact sexually with all females. Gorillas use intimidation to establish and maintain alpha position. A study conducted regarding the reproductive behavior of male mountain gorillas Gorilla beringei beringei found further evidence that dominant males are favored to father offspring, even when there is a greater number of males in a notably enlarged group size.]

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