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Animal rights is the philosophy according to which some, or all, animals are entitled to the possession of their own existence and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering —should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings. Advocates for animal rights oppose the assignment of moral value and fundamental protections on the basis of species membership alone—an idea known as speciesism sincewhen Richard D. Ryder adopted the term  —arguing that it is a prejudice as irrational as any other.
In parallel to the debate about moral rights, law schools in North America now often teach animal law and several legal scholars, such as Steven Jean jacques rousseau wikipedia. Wise and Gary L. Francionesupport the extension of basic wikipediz rights and personhood to non-human animals. The animals most often considered in arguments for personhood are hominids. Some animal-rights academics support this because it would break through the species barrier, but others oppose it because it predicates moral value on mental complexity, rather than on sentience alone.
Outside the order of primatesanimal-rights discussions most often address the status of mammals compare charismatic megafauna.
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Other animals considered less sentient jean jacques rousseau wikipedia gained less attention; insects relatively little  outside Jainismand animal-like bacteria despite their overwhelming numbers hardly any. Critics of animal rights argue that nonhuman animals are unable to enter into a social contractand thus cannot be possessors of rights, a view summed up by the philosopher Roger Scrutonwho writes that only humans have duties, and therefore only humans have rights. Congress with the enactment of link, including the Animal Enterprise Terrorism Actallowing the prosecution of this sort of activity as terrorism.
Aristotle stated that animals lacked reason logosand placed humans at the top of the natural world, yet the respect for animals in ancient Greece was very high. Some animals were considered divine, e.
In the Book of Genesis 5th or 6th century BCEAdam is given "dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl http://rectoria.unal.edu.co/uploads/tx_felogin/puritan-writers-the-wonders-of-the-invisible/king-hamlets-ghost.php the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
The philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras c. He was the first to create a jean jacques rousseau wikipedia of animals; he perceived some similarities between humans and other species, but stated for the most part that animals lacked reason logosreasoning logismosthought dianoianousand belief doxa.
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Theophrastus c. Plutarch 1 C. CE in his Life of Cato the Elder comments that while law and justice are applicable strictly to men only, beneficence and charity towards beasts is characteristic of a gentle heart. This is intended as a correction and advance over the merely utilitarian treatment of animals and slaves by Cato himself. Tom Beauchamp writes that the most extensive account in antiquity of how animals should be treated was written by the Neoplatonist philosopher Porphyry —c. According to Richard D. Ryderthe first known animal protection legislation in Europe was passed in Ireland in It prohibited pulling wool off sheep, and the attaching of ploughs to horses' tails, referring to "the cruelty used to beasts. Ward's list of "rites" included rite "No man shall exercise any Tirrany or Crueltie toward any brute Creature which are usually kept for man's use.
The Puritans passed animal protection legislation jean jacques rousseau wikipedia England too. Kathleen Kete writes that animal welfare laws were passed in as part of the ordinances of the Protectorate —the government jean jacques rousseau wikipedia Oliver Cromwell —which lasted from tofollowing the English Civil War.]