Commodity Capital : C' — M' — C', in which the surplus value contains in products is realised in money form by the Commercial capitalist, and then reinvested in more commodities.
The successful progress of production of surplus value and its realisation in the form of increased money is dependent marxist glossary the supply of suitable commodities for the reproduction of labour power and glossarj of means of production in the market.
Thus all three circuits and all three sections of the social capital mutually support one another. The term was coined by Henry David Thoreau inafter spending one night in jail for refusing to pay tax due for his time spent in the wilderness, but the practice was only developed to a science by Gandhi who made it the central tactic of the Indian Independence Movement. The most famous application of civil disobedience was the Salt March in March-Aprilwhen hundreds of thousands marched km to the seaside to harvest salt, in defiance of the British gloasary 60, were arrested and many more beaten, but it drew the masses together behind Gandhi, and convinced the British that the Independence Movement was unstoppable and marxist glossary they would have to negotiate with Gandhi.
Lawson trained marxist glossary young members of SNCC in the use of civil disobedience. The SNCC used the tactic in lunch counter sit-ins and popularized the approach, and it was used successfully by the civil rights movement and the peace movement throughout the following decade.
The British anti-nuclear movement did not adopt civil disobedience until after its effectiveness had marxist glossary demonstrated marxust the Civil Rights Movement in the US, and the US anti-nuclear movement also adopted civil disobedience about this time. The founders of civil disobedience, Gandhi and Lawson, were both pacifistsbut this was not the case for the majority of those who used the tactic under their direction.
There is no essential connection between pacifism and civil disobedience, in fact, many pacifists regard civil disobedience as inherently violent because of its tendency to be confrontational and will not use civil disobedience. Civil society is characterised by "free" labour and a commodity market, a system of law enforcement and voluntary association. An educated Englishman would not marxist glossary this.
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One would have to say bourgeois society or, depending on circumstances, commercial and industrial societyto which one might append the following note:. By Bourgeois Society, we understand that phase of social development in which the Bourgeoisie, the Middle Class, the class of industrial and commercial Capitalists, is, socially and politically, the ruling class; which is now the case more or less in all the civilized countries of Europe and America.
By marxist glossary expressions: Bourgeois society, and industrial and commercial society, we therefore propose to designate the same stage of social development; the first expression referring, however, marxist glossary to the fact of the middle class being the ruling class, in opposition either to the class whose rule it superseded the feudal nobilityor to those classes which it succeeds in keeping under its social and political marxist glossary the proletariat or industrial working class, the rural population, etc.]