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Their mathematical physics ia are standard problems in quantum mechanicsan important branch of physics. Physics embodies the study of the fundamental constituents of the universethe forces and interactions they exert on one another, and the results produced by these interactions. In general, physics is regarded as the fundamental science, because all other natural sciences use and obey the principles and laws set down by the field.
Physics relies heavily on mathematics as the logical framework for formulation and quantification of principles. The study of the principles of the universe has a long history and largely derives from physics ia observation and experimentation. The formulation of theories about the governing laws of the universe has been central to the study of physics from very early on, with philosophy gradually yielding to systematic, quantitative experimental testing and observation as the source of verification.
Key historical developments in physics include Isaac Newton 's theory of universal gravitation and classical mechanicsan understanding of electricity and its relation to magnetismEinstein 's theories of special physics ia general relativitythe development of thermodynamicsand the quantum mechanical physics ia of atomic and subatomic physics.
The field of physics is extremely broad, and can include such diverse studies la quantum mechanics and theoretical physicsapplied physics and optics. Modern physics is becoming increasingly specialized, where researchers tend to focus on see more particular area rather than being "universalists" like Isaac NewtonAlbert Einstein and Lev Landauwho worked in multiple areas.
Objects of physics ia include planets, moons, stars, nebulae, galaxies and comets. Astronomy is the study of everything in the universe beyond Earth's atmosphere. That includes objects we can see with our naked eyes. Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences. Astronomers of early civilizations performed methodical observations of the night sky, and astronomical artifacts have been found from much earlier periods.
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There are two types of astronomy, observational astronomy and physics ia physsics. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring and analyzing data, mainly using basic principles of physics while Theoretical astronomy is oriented towards the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. This discipline is the science of celestial objects and phenomena that originate outside the Earth's atmosphere. It is concerned physics ia the evolution, physics read article, chemistrymeteorologyand motion of celestial objects, as well as the formation and development of the universe. Astronomy includes the examination, study and modeling of stars, planets, comets. Most of the information used by astronomers is gathered by remote observation, although some laboratory reproduction of celestial phenomena has been performed such as the molecular chemistry of the interstellar medium.
While the origins of the study of celestial features and physics ia can be traced back to antiquity, the scientific methodology of this phhsics began to develop in the middle of the 17th century. A key factor was Galileo 's introduction of the telescope to examine the night sky in more detail.
The mathematical treatment of astronomy began with Newton 's development of celestial mechanics and the laws of gravitationalthough it was triggered by earlier work of astronomers such as Kepler. By the 19th century, astronomy had developed into a physics ia science, with the introduction of instruments such as the spectroscope and photographyalong with much-improved telescopes and the creation of professional observatories.
Physjcs section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message The distinctions between the natural science disciplines are not always sharp, i robot they share a number of cross-discipline fields. Physics plays physics ia significant role in the other natural sciences, as represented by astrophysicsgeophysicschemical physics and biophysics.
Physics ia chemistry is represented by such fields as biochemistrychemical biologygeochemistry and astrochemistry. A particular example of a scientific discipline that draws upon multiple natural sciences is environmental science.]