The single transferable vote STV is a voting system designed to achieve or closely approach proportional representation through the use of multiple-member constituencies and each voter casting a single ballot on which candidates are ranked.
The preferential ranked balloting allows transfer of votes to produce proportionality, to form consensus behind select candidates and to avoid the waste of votes prevalent under other voting systems. Under STV, each elector representqtive casts a single vote in a district election that elects multiple winners.
Each elector marks their ballot for the most preferred candidate and also marks back-up preferences. A vote conx to the voter's first preference if possible, but if the first preference is eliminated, instead of being thrown away, the vote is transferred to a back-up preference, with the vote being assigned to the voter's second, third, or lower pros and cons of representative democracy if possible or under some systems being apportioned fractionally to different candidates.
Difference Between Direct And Direct Democracy
Where there are more candidates than seats, the least popular is eliminated and their votes transferred based on voters' marked back-up preferences. In some systems surplus votes not needed by successful candidates are transferred proportionally, as described below. STV repdesentative votes to be cast for individual candidates rather than for parties or party machine-controlled party lists. Compared rfpresentative first-past-the-post Pros and cons of representative democracy voting continue reading, STV reduces the number of "wasted" voteswhich are those cast for unsuccessful candidates and for successful candidates over and above those needed to secure a seat. STV avoids this waste by transferring a vote to another preferred candidate. STV also provides approximately proportional representation, ensuring that substantial minority factions have some representation.
No one party or voting block can take all the seats in a district. The key to STV's achievement of proportionality is that each elector voter only casts one single votein a district election electing multiple winners.
Under STV, district elections grow more proportionally representative in direct relation to increase in the number of seats to be elected in a constituency — the more seats, the more the distribution of the seats in a democracj will be proportional. In a seven-seat STV district, any candidate who can get the support of approximately 14 percent of the vote either first preferences alone or a combination of first preferences and lower-ranked preferences transferred from other candidates will win a seat.
D.C. vs Wyoming
It is also called "single-winner ranked-choice voting". Its goal is representation of a majority of the voters in a district by a single official, as opposed to STV's goal of proportional representation of all the substantial voting blocks by multiple officials.
When STV is used for single-winner elections, it is equivalent to the instant-runoff voting method. In the United States, it is sometimes called choice voting, preferential voting, or preference voting. In STV, each voter ranks the candidates in order of preference, marking a '1' beside their most preferred candidate, a '2' beside their second most preferred, and so on as shown in the sample ballot on the right.
As noted, this is a simplified example.
In practice, the candidates' names are usually organized in columns so that voters are informed of the candidates' party affiliations or whether they are standing as independents. An alternative way to mark preferences for candidates is to use columns for the voters' preference.
Pros And Cons Of Interest Groups
One column is to show first preference. An X there goes beside the most preferred candidate. The next column is for the second preference. An X there marks the second-preference candidate.
In most STV elections, a quota is established to ensure that all elected candidates are elected with approximately equal numbers of votes. In some STV varieties, votes are totalled, and a quota the minimum number of votes required to win a seat is derived. Once a quota is determined, candidates' vote tallies are consulted.
If a candidate achieves the quota, he or she is declared elected. Then in some STV systems, any surplus vote is transferred to other candidates in proportion to the next back-up preference marked on the ballots repreesntative by that candidate. If more candidates than seats remain, the candidate with the fewest votes is eliminated, with their votes being transferred to other candidates as determined by the voters' next back-up preference. These last candidates may be elected without surpassing quota, but their survival until the end is taken as proof of their general acceptability by the voters.]