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Co-founder Alexis Ohanian speaking in The idea and initial development of Reddit originated with then college roommates Steve Huffman and Alexis Ohanian in Huffman and Ohanian attended a lecture by programmer-entrepreneur Paul Graham in Boston, Massachusetts , during their spring break from University of Virginia. The company launched sponsored content [37] and a self-serve ads platform that year. These new content guidelines were aimed at banning content inciting violence and quarantining offensive material. Vollero's appointment spurred speculation of an initial public offering, a move that senior leaders have considered publicly. The most popular posts from the site's numerous subreddits are visible on the front page to those who browse the site without an account. Subreddits are overseen by moderators, Reddit users who earn the title by creating a subreddit or being promoted by a current moderator. social penetration theory altman Social penetration theory altman

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Social Penetration Theory Part 1 social penetration theory altman

Using an AI-Powered Chatbot to Conduct Conversational Surveys participants spend 5 minutes to complete a question survey but 10 minutes to finish a question survey 1. The problem is exacerbated with open-ended questions because of the extra time and effort required for formulating and typing responses to such questions [8, 17].

social penetration theory altman

Open-ended questions are an important method to collect valuable data and are widely used in self-administered online surveys [62]. In particular, open-ended questions allow respondents to phrase their answers freely when the options of responses cannot be pre-defined or the pre-defined responses may social penetration theory altman biases [17, 47]. Moreover, open-ended questions help collect deeper insights, such as the sockal and rationales behind the answers [17, 80]. However, open-ended questions often induce more cognitive burdens and survey-taking fatigue, and respondents are more likely to skip such questions or provide low-quality or even irrelevant answers [8, 17, 73].

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Consequently, survey-taking fatigue adversely affects the quality and reliability of the data collected especially when open-ended questions are involved [17, 18, 64] To combat survey taking fatigue especially to motivate and guide survey social penetration theory altman to provide quality answers to open-ended questions, several approaches have been proposed. One set of proposals is to inject interactive features into an online static survey, such as providing tehory feedback [18] and probing responses [64], to improve response quality and encourage participant engagement. However, no existing survey platforms support such interactive features nor do they automatically motivate and guide survey participants to provide quality answers to open-ended questions during a survey. A lack of support of such interaction features soical existing platforms may be due to two main reasons. On the other hand, the advent of chatbots with their increasingly more powerful conversational capabilities can offer an alternative approach to static online surveys.

Specifically, an AI-powered chatbot can conduct a conversational survey.

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As shown in Fig 1, in a conversational survey, a chatbot asks open-ended questions, probes answers, substantive test audit handles social dialogues. Intuitively, a chatbot-powered conversational survey retains the advantages of online surveys and offers several additional benefits especially facilitating gathering participant responses to open- ended questions. First, a chatbot can frame survey social penetration theory altman in more personalized, conversational messages, which might help improve participant engagement and response quality [17, 36, 46].

Publication date: January Second, the perceived anthropomorphic characteristics of a chatbot can potentially deliver human- like social interactions that encourage survey participants to reveal personal insights [83]. Third, it is natural for a chatbot to interactively encourage information exchange in the course of a survey, such as providing response feedback and probing responses, which in turn helps reduce survey- taking fatigue and improve response quality.

Moreover, it is social penetration theory altman inherent functions of chatbots that interpret diverse user natural language input and handle complex conversations. Despite their benefits, chatbots bear several risks for their use in conducting surveys.


First, a turn-by-turn chat requires participants to take extra time and effort social penetration theory altman complete a survey. It is unclear whether people would be willing to take the time to chat and complete a survey, let alone providing quality responses. The risk is even higher for surveys with paid participants, who would not be rewarded for taking a longer survey. Second, current chatbots are far from perfect and their limited conversation capabilities may lead to user disappointment and frustration [34]. It is unknown whether the limited capabilities would deter participants from offering quality responses or completing a survey. Once participants realize that a chatbot cannot fully understand or assess their responses, it is unknown whether they would do mischief by intentionally feeding the chatbot with bogus responses, which would adversely affect the overall response quality.

Finally, the use of a personified conversational system may lead to user behaviors that affect survey quality. For example, studies show that people have positivity bias when giving opinions to an agent [85], producing potentially biased survey results.

social penetration theory altman

To our knowledge, there have not been any in-depth studies examining the effectiveness and limitations of AI-powered chatbot surveys in contrast to typical online surveys.]

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