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Sufi orders tariqa trace most of their original precepts from Muhammad through Ali ibn Abi Talibwith the notable exception of the Article source order, who trace their original precepts to Muhammad through Abu Bakr. Although the overwhelming majority of Sufis, both pre-modern and modern, were and are adherents of Sunni Islamthere also developed certain strands of Sufi practice within the ambit of Shia Islam during when i am laid in earth analysis late medieval period, particularly after the Safavid conversion of Iran from majority Sunni to Shia.
Although Sufis were opposed to dry legalism, they strictly observed Islamic law and belonged to various schools of Islamic jurisprudence and theology. Sufis have been characterized by their asceticismespecially by their attachment to dhikrthe practice of remembrance of God, often performed after prayers. Despite a relative decline of Sufi orders in the modern era and criticism of some aspects of Sufism by modernist thinkers and conservative SalafistsSufism has continued to play an important role in the Islamic world, and has also influenced various forms of spirituality in the West.
The Arabic word tasawwuf lit. Many other terms that described particular spiritual qualities and roles were used instead in more practical contexts. Some modern scholars have used other definitions of Sufism such as "intensification of Islamic faith and practice"  and "process of realizing ethical and spiritual ideals".
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The term Sufism was originally introduced into European languages in the 18th century by Earrh scholars, who viewed it mainly as an intellectual doctrine and literary tradition at variance with what they saw as sterile monotheism of Islam. In modern result of imperialism usage the term serves to describe a wide range of social, cultural, political and religious phenomena associated with Sufis.
These two when i am laid in earth analysis were combined by the Sufi al-Rudhabari d. These men and women who sat at al-Masjid an-Nabawi are considered by some to be the first Sufis. Sufism existed as an individual inner practice of Muslims since early Islamic history. Ernst the earliest figures of Sufism are Muhammad himself and his companions Sahabah. By pledging allegiance to Muhammad, the Sahabah had committed themselves to the service of God. It is through Muhammad that Sufis aim to learn about, understand and connect with God. Such a concept may be understood by the hadithwhich Sufis regard to be authentic, in which Muhammad said, "I am the city of knowledge, and Ali is its gate. Historian Jonathan A. Brown notes that during the lifetime of Muhammad, some companions were more inclined than others to "intensive devotion, pious abstemiousness and pondering the divine analywis more than Islam required, such as Abu Dharr al-Ghifari.
The Book of the Law
Hasan al-Basriread article tabi ', is considered a "founding figure" in the "science of purifying the heart". Practitioners of Sufism hold that in its early stages of development Sufism effectively referred to nothing more than the internalization of Islam. Modern academics and scholars have rejected early Orientalist theories asserting a non-Islamic origin of Sufism;  the consensus is that it emerged in Western Asia. Many have asserted Sufism to be unique within the confines of the Islamic religion, and contend that Sufism developed from people like Bayazid Bastamiwho, in his utmost reverence to the sunnahrefused to eat a watermelon because he did not find any proof that Muhammad ever ate it.
Over the years, Sufi orders have influenced and been adopted by various Shi'i movements, especially Isma'ilismwhich led to the Safaviyya order's conversion to Shia Islam from Sunni Islam and the spread of Twelverism throughout Iran. Existing in both Sunni and Shia Islam, Sufism is not a distinct sect, as is sometimes erroneously assumed, but a method of approaching or a way of understanding the religion, which strives to take the regular practice of the religion to the "supererogatory level" through simultaneously "fulfilling As a mystic and ascetic aspect of Islam, it is considered as the part of Islamic teaching that deals with the purification of the inner self. By focusing on the more spiritual aspects of religion, Sufis strive to obtain direct experience of God by making use of "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use. Ibn Taymiyya's Sufi inclinations and his reverence for Sufis like Abdul-Qadir Gilani can also be seen in his hundred-page commentary on Futuh al-ghayb visit web page, covering only five of when i am laid in earth analysis seventy-eight sermons of the book, but showing that he considered tasawwuf essential within the life of the Islamic community.
In his commentary, Ibn Taymiyya stresses that the primacy of the sharia forms the soundest tradition in tasawwufand to argue this point he lists over a dozen early masters, as well as more contemporary shaykhs like his fellow Hanbalisal-Ansari al-Harawi and Abdul-Qadir, and the latter's own shaykh, Hammad al-Dabbas the upright.]