Anatomy of the endocrine system -

Anatomy of the endocrine system

Anatomy of the endocrine system - that would

But how well do you really know it? Your guide is Dr. Anthony A. Cardiovascular System—Anatomy of the Heart This introductory lecture examines the anatomy of the fist-sized muscle that pumps blood through the body. We review the distinction between arteries and veins and discuss the location of the heart, its coverings, layers, and subdivisions. Cardiovascular System—Physiology of the Heart In this lecture, we examine the functioning of the cardiac cycle. We also examine the functioning of the heart's conduction system, the functioning of the valves which produce the heart's distinctive "lub-dub" sound , and possible complications, notably atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular System—Anatomy of the Great Vessels This lecture examines the anatomy of the three vessel networks that circulate blood. We identify and describe the structure of the vessels that form these networks. Next, we examine the major circulatory routes for the blood: arterial and venous systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, and hepatic portal circulation.

Not: Anatomy of the endocrine system

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anatomy of the endocrine system.

Hypothalamic—neurohypophyseal system [1] Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells[ edit ] Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells PNECsare specialized airway epithelial cells that occur as solitary cells or as clusters called neuroepithelial bodies NEBs in the lung.

Organ systems in the human body

Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells are also known as Kulchitsky cells or K cells. These cells are bottle- or flask-like in shape, and reach from the basement membrane to the lumen. They can be distinguished by their profile of bioactive amines and peptides, namely serotonincalcitonincalcitonin gene-related peptide CGRPchromogranin Agastrin-releasing peptide GRPand cholecystokinin. These cells can be the source of several types of lung cancer- most notably, small cell carcinoma of the lung, and bronchial carcinoid tumor.

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This is best supported by the presence of an oxygen-sensitive potassium channel coupled to an oxygen sensory protein in the rabbit lumenal membrane. They are hypothetically involved in regulating localized epithelial cell growth and anatomy of the endocrine system through a paracrine mechanismwhereby their signaling continue reading are released into the environment. In addition, they contain neuroactive substances which are released from basal cytoplasm. These substances induce autonomic nerve terminals or vasculature in the endocrien lamina propria. Role in fetal lung[ edit ] In the fetal lung, they are frequently located at the branching points of airway tubules, and in humans are present by 10 weeks gestation.


Peptides and amines released by PNEC are involved in normal fetal lung development including branching morphogenesis. The best-characterized peptides are GRP, the mammalian form of bombesin, and CGRP; these substances exert direct mitogenic effects on epithelial cells and exhibit many properties akin to growth factors.

anatomy of the endocrine system

Example[ edit ] Examples Specialized groups of neuroendocrine cells can be found at the base of the third ventricle in the brain in a region called the hypothalamus. Ensocrine area controls most anterior pituitary cells and thereby regulates functions in the entire body, like responses to stresscold, sleepand the reproductive system.

anatomy of the endocrine system

The neurons send processes to a region connecting to the pituitary stalk and releasing hormones are delivered into the bloodstream. They are carried by portal vessels to the pituitary cells where they may stimulate, inhibit, or maintain the function of a particular cell type.]

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