Similarities of aerobic and anaerobic respiration - join. wasAll microbial metabolisms can be arranged according to three principles: 1. How the organism obtains carbon for synthesizing cell mass:  autotrophic — carbon is obtained from carbon dioxide CO 2 heterotrophic — carbon is obtained from organic compounds mixotrophic — carbon is obtained from both organic compounds and by fixing carbon dioxide 2. How the organism obtains reducing equivalents hydrogen atoms or electrons used either in energy conservation or in biosynthetic reactions: lithotrophic — reducing equivalents are obtained from inorganic compounds organotrophic — reducing equivalents are obtained from organic compounds 3. How the organism obtains energy for living and growing: phototrophic — energy is obtained from light  chemotrophic — energy is obtained from external chemical compounds  In practice, these terms are almost freely combined. Typical examples are as follows: chemolithoautotrophs obtain energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds and carbon from the fixation of carbon dioxide. Examples: Nitrifying bacteria , sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, iron-oxidizing bacteria , Knallgas-bacteria  photolithoautotrophs obtain energy from light and carbon from the fixation of carbon dioxide, using reducing equivalents from inorganic compounds. Examples: most bacteria, e. Escherichia coli , Bacillus spp. similarities of aerobic and anaerobic respiration
Similarities of aerobic and anaerobic respiration - agree withKonstantin Mereschkowski proposed a symbiotic origin for cells with nuclei The concept of the eukaryote has been attributed to the French biologist Edouard Chatton — The terms prokaryote and eukaryote were more definitively reintroduced by the Canadian microbiologist Roger Stanier and the Dutch-American microbiologist C. In his work Titres et Travaux Scientifiques,  Chatton had proposed the two terms, calling the bacteria prokaryotes and organisms with nuclei in their cells eukaryotes. However he mentioned this in only one paragraph, and the idea was effectively ignored until Chatton's statement was rediscovered by Stanier and van Niel. In and , the Russian biologist Konstantin Mereschkowski — argued that plastids were reduced cyanobacteria in a symbiosis with a non- photosynthetic heterotrophic host that was itself formed by symbiosis between an amoeba-like host and a bacterium-like cell that formed the nucleus. Plants had thus inherited photosynthesis from cyanobacteria. This helped to uncover the origin of the eukaryotes and the symbiogenesis of two important eukaryote organelles , mitochondria and chloroplasts.
Similarities of aerobic and anaerobic respiration VideoAnaerobic vs Aerobic Respiration
Go to: Abstract This article reviews the contribution made by functional electron microscopy towards identifying and understanding the reactions of plant roots and shoots to anaerobic stress. Keywords: Key words: Review, anaerobiosis, mitochondrial ultrastructure, glycolysis, lipid metabolism, general adaptation syndrome, nitrate reduction, cell culture selection.
This can be exemplified by contributions similaritjes using electron microscopy EM to study fine structure of plant cells responding to stress from oxygen shortage.
As described below, results first obtained in EM studies promoted further research and development of the problems using physiological and similaritie approaches. In contrast to cytologists interested in a static state of cell ultrastructure, physiologists and biochemists have used electron microscopy to reveal dynamic rearrangements of cellular membranes provoked by physiological experiments.
Such rearrangements have often be related directly to adaptive or degenerative changes induced by stress. We define such an approach as functional electron microscopy. We have similarities of aerobic and anaerobic respiration electron microscopy for almost 30 years to study plant anaerobiosis and to elucidate the specific features of plant function and metabolism under oxygen deficiency.
It should be noted that hypoxia and anoxia are extremely stressful conditions since higher plants are essentially aerobic organisms. Consequently, all plant cell organelles, including endoplasmic reticulum, polysomes and cytoplasm undergo marked rearrangements under oxygen deficiency. The rearrangements in mitochondrial membranes are especially informative. Mitochondria are primary oxygen consumers and the major energy source of aerobic organisms.
Consequently, they suffer from oxygen deficiency before other cell organelles. Mitochondria may also have other key roles. For example, in experiments in which maize cell suspension cultures were transferred from an aerobic to anaerobic medium, Subbaiah et al. In addition, mitochondria undergo characteristic destructive or adaptive rearrangements under anaerobic stress. These changes hold the key to understanding features of cell adaptation or damage under oxygen deficiency. Accordingly, our EM studies have concentrated on assessing mitochondrial status. Experimental material selected and presented below is grouped into two categories.
The first includes results of EM studies dealing with principal problems of plant life under hypoxia and anoxia, i. The results of these studies have been supported subsequently in numerous physiological and biochemical studies conducted by others. Therefore, it is unlikely that conclusions drawn from these studies are controversial. The second category includes findings of more recent studies in which the functional electron microscopic approach has also played an important role.]