What was the catholic churchs response to the reformation - question howThese events were, in part, associated with the wider European Protestant Reformation , a religious and political movement that affected the practise of Christianity in western and central Europe. Causes included the invention of the printing press , increased circulation of the Bible and the transmission of new knowledge and ideas among scholars, the upper and middle classes and readers in general. The phases of the English Reformation, which also covered Wales and Ireland , were largely driven by changes in government policy, to which public opinion gradually accommodated itself. The reality of political differences between Rome and England allowed growing theological disputes to come to the fore. Church law was governed by canon law with final jurisdiction in Rome. Church taxes were paid straight to Rome and the Pope had the final word in the appointment of bishops. The break with Rome was effected by a series of Acts of Parliament passed between and , among them the Act of Supremacy , which declared that Henry was the " Supreme Head on earth of the Church of England ". Under Mary, the process was reversed and the Church of England was again placed under papal jurisdiction. Elizabeth reintroduced the Protestant religion but in a more moderate manner. The structure and theology of the church was a matter of fierce dispute for generations.
What was the catholic churchs response to the reformation VideoThe Protestant Reformation: Crash Course European History #6 what was the catholic churchs response to the reformation
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WaldensiansWaldensesVallenses or Vaudois are names for a Christian movement that started in Lyon, France, in the late s. The what was the catholic churchs response to the reformation was started partly in response to wax schisms that had consumed the Catholic church in the 12th century and advocated a return to the vows of poverty and preaching of the Gospel as advocated by Jesus and his disciples in the New Testament. Originally a reform movement within the Catholic Church, the movement was declared heretical by and became persecuted by Church officials. Upon the rise of the Protestant Reformation, church leaders met with Swiss and German Calvinists and agreed to join with the Reformed church, adopting many of the Calvinist tenets and becoming its Italian arm. Although the church was granted some rights and freedoms under French Cathooic Henry IV with the Edict of Nantes inCatholic persecution rose again in the 17th century, with an extermination of the sect attempted by the Duke of Savoy in This led to an exodus and dispersion of the Waldensians to other parts of Europe and even to the Western hemisphere.
While many Waldensian sects eventually were absorbed into other Protestant Christian denominations, active congregations remain in Europe, South America, and North America under the label of the Waldensian Evangelical Church. Organizations such as the American Waldensian Society exist to maintain the history of this movement. Both the contemporary and historic Waldensian spiritual heritage describes itself as proclaiming the Christian Gospel, serving the marginalized, promoting social justice, fostering inter-religious work, and advocating respect for religious diversity and freedom of conscience.
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Waldensians held and preached a number of truths as they read from the Bible. These included:. They also rejected a number of concepts that were widely held in Christian Europe of the era. They were accused, moreover, of having scoffed at the doctrine of transubstantiation, and of tue spoken blasphemously of the Catholic Church as the harlot of the Apocalypse.
They rejected what they perceived as the idolatry of the Catholic Church and considered the Papacy as the Antichrist of Rome. It was believed that this poem dated between andbut there is evidence that it was written in the first part of the fifteenth century. The poem exists in four manuscripts: two are housed at University of Cambridge, one at Trinity College in Dublin, and another in Geneva.
Some Waldenses also claim for their churches an Apostolic origin, but this is far from universal. They claim Peter Waldo in fact got his name by association what was the catholic churchs response to the reformation the Waldenses. This thought was more info in the early 19th century:. Other supposed founders for an ancient origin included Claudius, Bishop of Turin died and Berengarius of Tours died Many scholars have contested these claims, asserting that the Waldensians were followers of Peter Waldo.
Likewise, the modern Waldensian churches themselves claim their movement began with Peter Waldo. According to legend, Peter Sannabel renounced his wealth as an encumbrance to preaching, which led other members of the Catholic clergy to follow his example. The Waldensian movement was characterized from the beginning by lay preaching, voluntary poverty, and strict adherence to the Bible. They had to explain their faith before a panel of three clergymen, including issues that were then debated within the Church, such as the universal priesthood, the gospel in the vulgar tongue, and the issue of voluntary poverty. The Waldensians proceeded to disobey the Third Lateran Council and continued to desponse according to their own understanding of the Scriptures. By the early s, Waldo and his followers were excommunicated and forced cathilic Lyon. Rome also accused the Waldensians of teaching innumerable errors.
Waldo and his followers developed a system whereby they would go from town to town and meet secretly with small groups of Waldensians. There they would confess sins and hold service. A traveling Waldensian preacher was known as a barba. The group would shelter the barba and help make arrangements to move on to the next town in secret.
Waldo possibly died in the early 13th century, possibly in Germany; he was never captured, and his fate remains uncertain. They were also called InsabbatatiSabatiInzabbatatior Sabotiers —designations what was the catholic churchs response to the reformation from the unusual type of sabot they used as footwear. According to modern scholars and the Waldensians themselves, the Waldensians began with Peter Waldo, who began to preach on the streets of Lyon in Waldo, a successful and wealthy merchant churxhs Lyons, sold all of his possessions and gave the proceeds away to the poor and advocated that his followers do the same. Waldo and his followers relied on donations and handouts collected while they were preaching. They were also called InsabbatatiChurchxInzabbatatiSabotiers due to the unusual type of sabot they used as footwear.]