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Majoritarian model

Majoritarian model - interesting phrase

Majoritarian democracy refers to democracy that is based on majority rule of the citizens of a society. The political system is elected through winning the majority votes of people Classnotes, n. The pluralism model of democracy refers to the democratic system where no single group dominates politics, and organized groups compete with each other to influence policy. This essay discusses how the two models function in a democracy. The majoritarian democracy model takes several steps to function. The electorate is informed about the policy on matters such as health care, social security, tax reforms, and other issues of public interest. Individuals in society have a stand on these issues, and these individuals are knowledgeable on the positions of political candidates on these issues. The individuals then vote based on commonality or congruence between their position and the position of the political candidates. majoritarian model

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Multispecies Coalescent Process is a stochastic process model that describes the genealogical relationships for majoritarian model sample of DNA sequences taken from several species. The multispecies coalescent results in cases where the relationships among species for an individual gene the gene tree can differ majoritarian model the broader history of the species the mdoel tree. It has important implications for the theory and practice of phylogenetics [3] [4] and for understanding genome evolution. A gene tree is a binary graph that describes the evolutionary relationships between a sample of sequences for a non-recombining locus. A s pecies tree describes the evolutionary relationships between a set of species, assuming tree-like evolution. However, several processes can lead to discordance between gene trees and species trees.

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The Multispecies Coalescent model provides a framework for inferring species phylogenies while accounting for majoritarian model polymorphism and gene tree-species tree conflict. The process is also called majoritarian model Censored Coalescent. Besides species tree estimation, the multispecies coalescent model also provides a framework for using majoritarian model data to address a number of biological problems, such as estimation of species divergence times, population sizes of ancestral species, species delimitation, and inference of cross-species gene flow. If we consider a rooted three-taxon tree, the simplest non-trivial phylogenetic tree, there are three different tree topologies [7] but four possible gene trees. In the type 1 tree the alleles in species A and B coalesce after the speciation event that separated the A-B lineage from the C lineage. In the type 2 tree the alleles in species A and B coalesce before the speciation event that separated the A-B lineage from the C lineage in other words, the type 2 tree is a deep coalescence tree.

The type 1 here type 2 gene trees are both congruent with the species tree.

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The other two gene trees differ from the species tree; the two discordant gene trees are also deep coalescence trees. The distribution of times to coalescence is actually continuous for all of these trees.

majoritarian model

In other words, the exact coalescent time for any two loci with the same gene tree may differ. However, it is convenient to break up the trees based on whether the coalescence occurred before majoritarian model after the earliest speciation event.

majoritarian model

Given the internal branch length in coalescent units it is straightforward to calculate the probability of each gene tree. Since all three of the deep coalescence tree are equiprobable and majoritarian model of those deep coalescence tree are discordant it is easy to see that the probability that a rooted three-taxon gene tree will be congruent with the species tree is:.

Where the branch length in coalescent units T majoritarian model also written in an alternative form: the number of generations t divided by twice the effective population size N e. Pamilo and Nei [9] also derived the probability of congruence for rooted trees of four and five taxa as well as a general upper bound on the probability of congruence majoritarian model larger trees. Rosenberg [10] followed up with equations used for the complete set of topologies although the large number modfl distinct phylogenetic trees that mzjoritarian possible as the number of taxa increases [7] makes these equations impractical unless the number of taxa is very limited.]

One thought on “Majoritarian model

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