Iamblichus' On the Pythagorean Life 4th c. CE ends with a catalogue of Pythagorean men organized by city followed by a list of 17 of the most famous Pythagorean women. Of these Pythagoreans, appear nowhere else in the ancient tradition. This impressive list of names shows the wide impact of Pythagoreanism in the fifth and fourth centuries BCE. To what extent is it reliable? A long line of scholars has argued that the catalogue goes back to Aristoxenus in the fourth century BCE and is thus a reasonably accurate reflection of early Pythagoreanism rather than a creation of the later Neopythagorean tradition Rohde —, ; Dielsfringe speed dating Timpanaro-CardiniIII fringe speed dating ff.
This is up to a point a reasonable conclusion, since it is hard to see who would have been better placed than Aristoxenus to have such detailed information. Spesd arguments connecting Aristoxenus to the catalogue are not unassailable, however, and it is likely that the list has been altered in transmission, so that it cannot simply be accepted as the testimony of Aristoxenus Huffman http://rectoria.unal.edu.co/uploads/tx_fhdebug/dating-obstetric-ultrasound/dating-widowers-in-kenya.php. No names on the list can be positively assigned to a date later than Aristoxenus, but this would be likely to be true, even if the list were compiled at a later date, fringe speed dating Pythagoreanism appears to have largely died out for the two centuries immediately following Aristoxenus' death.
Thus, Iamblichus does not mention spede Pythagorean who can be positively dated after the time of Aristoxenus anywhere else in On the Pythagorean Life either. Scholars have also argued that Iamblichus cannot have composed the catalogue, since he mentions fringe speed dating 18 names that do not appear in the catalogue. This argument would fringe speed dating work, if Iamblichus were a careful and systematic author, which the repetitions and inconsistencies in On the Pythagorean Life show that he was not. While it is unlikely that Iamblichus composed source catalogue from scratch, it is perfectly possible that he edited it in a number of ways, while not feeling compelled to make it consistent with everything he says elsewhere in the text.
There are some peculiarities of the catalogue that suggest a connection to Aristoxenus.
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Philolaus and Eurytus are listed not under Croton but under Tarentum, just as they are in one of the Fragments of Aristoxenus Fr. On the other hand, some features of the daring are inconsistent with what we know of Aristoxenus. Aristoxenus' teacher, Xenophilus, who is identified as from the Thracian Chalcidice in the Fragments of Aristoxenus Frs. Moreover, the legendary figure, Abaris, is included in the catalogue and even said to be from the mythical Hyperborea, whereas Fringe speed dating is usually seen as resolutely trying to rationalize the Pythagorean tradition.
Thus, while Aristoxenus is quite plausibly taken to be the author of the core of the catalogue, it is likely feinge additions, omissions, and various changes have been made to the original document and hence it is impossible to be sure, in most cases, whether a given name has the authority of Aristoxenus behind it or not. The catalogue includes several problematic names, such as Alcmaeon, Empedocles, Parmenides and Melissus. Alcmaeon was active in Croton when the Pythagoreans flourished datting, but Aristotle explicitly distinguishes Alcmaeon from the Pythagoreans and scholarly consensus is that he is not a Pythagorean see the entry on Alcmaeon.
Most scholars would fringe speed dating that Empedocles was heavily influenced by Pythagoreanism; in the later tradition fragments of Empedocles are routinely cited to support the Pythagorean doctrines of metempsychosis and vegetarianism e. On the other hand, both in the ancient and in the modern world, Empedocles is not usually labeled a Pythagorean, because, whatever the initial Pythagorean influences, he developed a philosophical system that was his own original contribution. Parmenides is again not usually identified as a Pythagorean in either the ancient fringe speed dating modern tradition and, although scholars have speculated on Pythagorean influences on Parmenides, there is little that can be identified as overtly Pythagorean in his philosophy. The reason for Parmenides' inclusion in the catalogue is pretty clearly the please click for source that his alleged teacher Ameinias was a Pythagorean Diogenes Laertius IX There is no reason to doubt this story, but it gives us no more reason fringe speed dating call Parmenides a Pythagorean than to speev Plato a Socratic or Aristotle a Platonist.
It would appear fringe speed dating Melissus was included on the list because he was regarded in turn as the pupil of Parmenides. Inclusion in the catalogue thus need not indicate that a figure lived a Pythagorean way of life or that he adopted metaphysical principles that were distinctively Pythagorean; he need only have had contact speef a Pythagorean teacher. It is possible that Aristoxenus included Parmenides and Melissus on the list for these reasons or that he had better reasons for including them e. Zhmud67—74 has argued that it begs the question to use a doctrinal criterion to identify Pythagoreans. We need to read article identify Pythagoreans and then see what their doctrines are.
His alternative, however, to regard as Pythagoreans those figures identified by reliable ancient sources runs into difficulties as well, as is shown by Iamblichus' catalogue, which Zhmud does accept as reliable, but which is problematic for the reasons just given. A great deal of circumspection is required in determining what constitutes a reliable ancient source, when it comes to Pythagoreanism. What criteria should then be used in order fringe speed dating identify a given figure as a Pythagorean Huffman a? First, anyone identified as a Pythagorean by an early source uncontaminated fringe speed dating the Neopythagorean glorification of Pythagoras see below can be regarded as a Pythagorean. This would include sources dating before the early Academy ca. Aristotle, Aristoxenus and Eudemuswho, under the influence of Aristotle, defined themselves in opposition to the Academic view of Pythagoras.
Second, a doctrinal criterion is applicable. Anyone who espouses the philosophy assigned to the Pythagoreans by Aristotle can be regarded as fringe speed dating Pythagorean. It is important that the use of such a doctrinal criterion be limited to quite specific doctrines such as limiters and unlimiteds as first principles and the cosmology that includes the counter-earth and central fire.]